Direct mediatorless electron transport between the monolayer of photosystem II and poly(mercapto-p-benzoquinone) modified gold electrode--new design of biosensor for herbicide detection.Biosens Bioelectron. 2005 Dec 15; 21(6):923-32.BB
Photosystem II (PSII) modified gold electrodes have been prepared providing mediatorless electron transport on the basis of electrodeposited conductive layer poly-mercapto-p-benzoquinone (polySBQ). Such electrodes are suitable in construction of biosensors for PSII inhibiting herbicides. PolySBQ layer was synthesized on (i) screen-printed gold electrodes and (ii) gold microelctodes in an array on silicon substrate, by electrochemical-oxidation of sulpho-p-benzoquinone (SBQ) at +650 mV versus Ag/AgCl. The basic properties of polySBQ layer were characterized using linear sweep voltammetry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The typical redox response for quinones was observed. The optimal length of the polymer providing direct electron transfer (DET) was found to be very close to 30 nm. PSII particles isolated from the thermophilic cyanobacteria Synechococcus bigranulatus were physically adsorbed on the polySBQ covered gold electrodes. The generation of photocurrent was observed at E=+250 mV (versus Ag/AgCl) without addition of any mediator. The basic properties of DET were studied. We concluded that: (i) PSII active in DET is immobilized in form of monolayer; (ii) the charge transport from PSII to gold working electrode (AuWE) is fast and dominated by the rate of the enzymatic reaction; (iii) polySBQ layer drains electrons from the Q(A) pocket of the photosystem since the electrode activity is inhibited by specific inhibitor, i.e. diuron (DCMU); (iv) the stability of the photosystem immobilized on gold electrodes by using polySBQ is comparable to the stability of PSII in solution under the same experimental conditions; (v) the inhibition of the photosystem by herbicide DCMU follows the sigmoid dependence; (vi) I(50) as well as limit of detection (LOD) show an improved sensitivity compared to other published biosensing systems using PSII as bioactive part.