Rapid and sensitive determination of phosphorus-containing amino acid herbicides in soil samples by capillary zone electrophoresis with diode laser-induced fluorescence detection.Electrophoresis. 2005 Dec; 26(23):4478-85.E
A straightforward and sensitive method has been developed for the analysis of phosphorus-containing amino acid herbicides (glufosinate and aminomethylphosphonic acid, the major metabolite of glyphosate) in soil samples. For this purpose, the analytical features of two indocyanine fluorescent dyes, sulfoindocyanine succinimidyl ester (Cy5) and 1-ethyl-1-[5-(N-succinimidyl-oxycarbonyl)pentyl]-3,3,3,3-tetramethyl-indodicarbocyanine chloride, as labeling reagents for the determination of these herbicides by CZE with diode LIF detection were investigated. Practical aspects related to the labeling chemistry and CZE separation showed that the two probes behave similarly, Cy5 being the best choice for the determination of these herbicides on account of its higher sensitivity. The optimum procedure includes a derivatization step of the pesticides at 25 degrees C for 30 min and direct injection to CZE analysis, which is conducted within about 14 min using ACN in the running buffer. The lowest detectable analyte concentration ranged from 0.025 to 0.18 microg/L with a precision of 3.6-5.4%. These results indicate that indocyanine fluorescence dyes are useful as rapid and sensitive labels for the determination of these herbicides when compared with typical fluorescein dyes such as FITC and 5-(4,6-dichloro-s-triazin-2-ylamino) fluorescein, because they provide faster labeling reactions even at room temperature and the excess of reagent practically does not interfere the determination. Finally, the Cy5 method was successfully applied to soil samples without a preliminary clean-up procedure, and the herbicides were measured without any interference from coexisting substances. The recoveries of these compounds in these samples at fortification levels of 100-500 ng/g were 90-93%.