Hydrodynamic simulation (computational fluid dynamics) of asymmetrically positioned tablets in the paddle dissolution apparatus: impact on dissolution rate and variability.J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 Oct; 57(10):1243-50.JP
The aim of this work was to investigate the dissolution rate from both the curved and planar surfaces of cylindrical compacts of benzoic acid, which were placed centrally and non-centrally at the base of the vessel of the paddle dissolution apparatus. The effect of fixing the compacts to a particular position on the variability of dissolution results was also examined. In addition, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to simulate fluid flow around compacts in the different positions in the vessel, and the relationship between the local hydrodynamics in the region of the compacts and the dissolution rate determined. The dissolution rate was found to increase from the centre position to the off-centre positions for each surface examined. There was a corresponding increase in maximum fluid velocities calculated from the CFD fluid flow simulations at a fixed distance from the compact. There was less variability in dissolution from compacts fixed to any of the positions compared with those that were not fixed. Fluid flow around compacts in different positions could be successfully modelled, and hydrodynamic variability examined, using CFD. The effect of asymmetric fluid flow was evident visually from the change in shape of the eroded compacts.