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Feeding practices and factors contributing to wasting, stunting, and iron-deficiency anaemia among 3-23-month old children in Kilosa district, rural Tanzania.
J Health Popul Nutr 2005; 23(3):222-30JH

Abstract

Infants in Tanzania are particularly vulnerable to under-nutrition during transition from breastmilk (as the only source of nourishment) to solid foods. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in Kilosa district in Tanzania to determine the feeding practices and the extent of wasting, stunting, and iron-deficiency anaemia. The study was done in two stages: in the first stage, a 24-hour dietary assessment was conducted to identify the type of complementary foods given and the eating habits according to age for 378 children aged 3-23 months. In the second stage, a progressive recruitment of 309 infants aged six months was made to measure weight, length, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, zinc protoporphyrin concentration, and malaria parasitaemia. Birth-weight, the potential contributing factor to under-nutrition and iron-deficiency anaemia, was obtained from the children's clinic cards. The 24-hour dietary assessment revealed that children consumed mainly a thin porridge prepared from maize flour as complementary food. Carbohydrates contributed most energy (on average 69%), followed by fats (18.6%) and protein (on average 12.1%). The complementary food co-vered only 15%, 20%, and 27% of the recommended iron intake for children aged 6-8, 9-11 and 12-23 months respectively. The mean Hb concentration was 9.3 +/- 1.9 g/dL, 68% of the infants were moderately anaemic (7 < or =11 g/dL), and about 11% were severely anaemic with Hb below 7 g/dL, while 21% were non-anaemic Hb (> or =11 g/dL). Equally, the mean zinc protoporphyrin concentration was 10.0 +/- 6.2 microg/g Hb, and 76% of the infants were iron-deficient (>5 microg/g Hb). The prevalence of stunting was 35%, while wasting was only 1.3%. Low birth-weight and low body mass index of mothers were the strong predictors of stunting, whereas low birth-weight and iron-deficiency were the strong predictors of anaemia. The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was high, affecting 50% of the infants. Having malaria was the only independent predictor associated with stunting, anaemia, and iron-deficiency. There is an urgent need to improve tradi-tional complementary foods in the studied community in terms of energy density, amount of fat in the diet, and bioavailability of macro and micronutrients.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Food Technology and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture and Applied Biological Sciences, Gent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent, Belgium.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16262018

Citation

Mamiro, Peter S., et al. "Feeding Practices and Factors Contributing to Wasting, Stunting, and Iron-deficiency Anaemia Among 3-23-month Old Children in Kilosa District, Rural Tanzania." Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition, vol. 23, no. 3, 2005, pp. 222-30.
Mamiro PS, Kolsteren P, Roberfroid D, et al. Feeding practices and factors contributing to wasting, stunting, and iron-deficiency anaemia among 3-23-month old children in Kilosa district, rural Tanzania. J Health Popul Nutr. 2005;23(3):222-30.
Mamiro, P. S., Kolsteren, P., Roberfroid, D., Tatala, S., Opsomer, A. S., & Van Camp, J. H. (2005). Feeding practices and factors contributing to wasting, stunting, and iron-deficiency anaemia among 3-23-month old children in Kilosa district, rural Tanzania. Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition, 23(3), pp. 222-30.
Mamiro PS, et al. Feeding Practices and Factors Contributing to Wasting, Stunting, and Iron-deficiency Anaemia Among 3-23-month Old Children in Kilosa District, Rural Tanzania. J Health Popul Nutr. 2005;23(3):222-30. PubMed PMID: 16262018.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Feeding practices and factors contributing to wasting, stunting, and iron-deficiency anaemia among 3-23-month old children in Kilosa district, rural Tanzania. AU - Mamiro,Peter S, AU - Kolsteren,Patrick, AU - Roberfroid,Dominique, AU - Tatala,Simon, AU - Opsomer,Ann S, AU - Van Camp,John H, PY - 2005/11/3/pubmed PY - 2006/1/27/medline PY - 2005/11/3/entrez SP - 222 EP - 30 JF - Journal of health, population, and nutrition JO - J Health Popul Nutr VL - 23 IS - 3 N2 - Infants in Tanzania are particularly vulnerable to under-nutrition during transition from breastmilk (as the only source of nourishment) to solid foods. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in Kilosa district in Tanzania to determine the feeding practices and the extent of wasting, stunting, and iron-deficiency anaemia. The study was done in two stages: in the first stage, a 24-hour dietary assessment was conducted to identify the type of complementary foods given and the eating habits according to age for 378 children aged 3-23 months. In the second stage, a progressive recruitment of 309 infants aged six months was made to measure weight, length, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, zinc protoporphyrin concentration, and malaria parasitaemia. Birth-weight, the potential contributing factor to under-nutrition and iron-deficiency anaemia, was obtained from the children's clinic cards. The 24-hour dietary assessment revealed that children consumed mainly a thin porridge prepared from maize flour as complementary food. Carbohydrates contributed most energy (on average 69%), followed by fats (18.6%) and protein (on average 12.1%). The complementary food co-vered only 15%, 20%, and 27% of the recommended iron intake for children aged 6-8, 9-11 and 12-23 months respectively. The mean Hb concentration was 9.3 +/- 1.9 g/dL, 68% of the infants were moderately anaemic (7 < or =11 g/dL), and about 11% were severely anaemic with Hb below 7 g/dL, while 21% were non-anaemic Hb (> or =11 g/dL). Equally, the mean zinc protoporphyrin concentration was 10.0 +/- 6.2 microg/g Hb, and 76% of the infants were iron-deficient (>5 microg/g Hb). The prevalence of stunting was 35%, while wasting was only 1.3%. Low birth-weight and low body mass index of mothers were the strong predictors of stunting, whereas low birth-weight and iron-deficiency were the strong predictors of anaemia. The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was high, affecting 50% of the infants. Having malaria was the only independent predictor associated with stunting, anaemia, and iron-deficiency. There is an urgent need to improve tradi-tional complementary foods in the studied community in terms of energy density, amount of fat in the diet, and bioavailability of macro and micronutrients. SN - 1606-0997 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16262018/Feeding_practices_and_factors_contributing_to_wasting_stunting_and_iron_deficiency_anaemia_among_3_23_month_old_children_in_Kilosa_district_rural_Tanzania_ L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/infantandnewbornnutrition.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -