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Iron deficiency, prolonged bottle-feeding, and racial/ethnic disparities in young children.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2005; 159(11):1038-42AP

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Childhood iron deficiency is associated with behavioral and cognitive delays. Few studies have explored the relationship between prolonged bottle-feeding and iron-deficiency anemia among toddlers.

OBJECTIVE

To examine the association between prolonged bottle-feeding and iron deficiency in a nationally representative sample of children ages 1 to 3 years.

DESIGN AND METHODS

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III provides data on the feeding practices of children 1 to 3 years old and contains measures of iron status including transferrin saturation, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and serum ferritin. The prevalence of iron deficiency and duration of bottle-feeding were determined for black, white, and Mexican American toddlers. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine the association between bottle-feeding duration and iron deficiency.

RESULTS

Among 2121 children ages 1 to 3 years, the prevalence of iron deficiency was 6% among whites, 8% among blacks, and 17% among Mexican Americans (P< .001). With increasing duration of bottle-feeding, the prevalence of iron deficiency among all children increased (3.8%, bottle-fed < or =12 months; 11.5%, bottle-fed 13-23 months; and 12.4%, bottle-fed 24-48 months [P< .001]). At 24 to 48 months of age, 36.8% of Mexican American children were still bottle-fed, compared with 16.9% of white and 13.8% of black children. In multivariate analyses, bottle-feeding for 24 to 48 months and Mexican ethnicity were associated with iron deficiency (odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-6.0; and odds ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-5.6, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

Children with prolonged bottle-feeding and Mexican American children are at higher risk for iron deficiency. Screening practices and nutritional counseling should be targeted at these high-risk groups.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Center for the Advancement of Underserved Children, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin and Children's Research Institute, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA. jbrotane@mail.mcw.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16275794

Citation

Brotanek, Jane M., et al. "Iron Deficiency, Prolonged Bottle-feeding, and Racial/ethnic Disparities in Young Children." Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, vol. 159, no. 11, 2005, pp. 1038-42.
Brotanek JM, Halterman JS, Auinger P, et al. Iron deficiency, prolonged bottle-feeding, and racial/ethnic disparities in young children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005;159(11):1038-42.
Brotanek, J. M., Halterman, J. S., Auinger, P., Flores, G., & Weitzman, M. (2005). Iron deficiency, prolonged bottle-feeding, and racial/ethnic disparities in young children. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 159(11), pp. 1038-42.
Brotanek JM, et al. Iron Deficiency, Prolonged Bottle-feeding, and Racial/ethnic Disparities in Young Children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005;159(11):1038-42. PubMed PMID: 16275794.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Iron deficiency, prolonged bottle-feeding, and racial/ethnic disparities in young children. AU - Brotanek,Jane M, AU - Halterman,Jill S, AU - Auinger,Peggy, AU - Flores,Glenn, AU - Weitzman,Michael, PY - 2005/11/9/pubmed PY - 2005/12/13/medline PY - 2005/11/9/entrez SP - 1038 EP - 42 JF - Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine JO - Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med VL - 159 IS - 11 N2 - BACKGROUND: Childhood iron deficiency is associated with behavioral and cognitive delays. Few studies have explored the relationship between prolonged bottle-feeding and iron-deficiency anemia among toddlers. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between prolonged bottle-feeding and iron deficiency in a nationally representative sample of children ages 1 to 3 years. DESIGN AND METHODS: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III provides data on the feeding practices of children 1 to 3 years old and contains measures of iron status including transferrin saturation, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and serum ferritin. The prevalence of iron deficiency and duration of bottle-feeding were determined for black, white, and Mexican American toddlers. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine the association between bottle-feeding duration and iron deficiency. RESULTS: Among 2121 children ages 1 to 3 years, the prevalence of iron deficiency was 6% among whites, 8% among blacks, and 17% among Mexican Americans (P< .001). With increasing duration of bottle-feeding, the prevalence of iron deficiency among all children increased (3.8%, bottle-fed < or =12 months; 11.5%, bottle-fed 13-23 months; and 12.4%, bottle-fed 24-48 months [P< .001]). At 24 to 48 months of age, 36.8% of Mexican American children were still bottle-fed, compared with 16.9% of white and 13.8% of black children. In multivariate analyses, bottle-feeding for 24 to 48 months and Mexican ethnicity were associated with iron deficiency (odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-6.0; and odds ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-5.6, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Children with prolonged bottle-feeding and Mexican American children are at higher risk for iron deficiency. Screening practices and nutritional counseling should be targeted at these high-risk groups. SN - 1072-4710 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16275794/Iron_deficiency_prolonged_bottle_feeding_and_racial/ethnic_disparities_in_young_children_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/fullarticle/10.1001/archpedi.159.11.1038 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -