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Effects of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on blood lipids, estrogen metabolism, and in vivo oxidative stress in postmenopausal vegetarian women.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Mar; 60(3):386-92.EJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Vegetarians are generally deficient in long-chain n-3 fatty acids. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids have a beneficial effect on plasma lipid levels, and some studies showed that they had breast cancer suppression effect. One of the biomarkers of breast cancer risk is the ratio of urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE(1)) to 16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alpha-OHE(1)).

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) supplementation on blood lipids, estrogen metabolism and oxidative stress in vegetarians.

DESIGN

Single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

INTERVENTIONS

Twenty-seven postmenopausal vegetarian women were recruited. After a 2-week run-in period with 6 g placebo corn oil, the subjects were subsequently randomized to receive either 6 g corn oil (n=13) or 6 g DHA-rich algae oil (2.14 g of DHA/day) (n=14) for 6 weeks. Two subjects in corn oil group withdrew before completion.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Plasma lipids, urinary 2-OHE(1) and 16alpha-OHE(1), urinary F(2)-isoprostanes and plasma alpha-tocopherol.

RESULTS

Plasma LDL-DHA and EPA level increased significantly by DHA supplementation. DHA decreased plasma cholesterol (C) levels (P=0.04), but did not influence the levels of plasma TG, LDL-C and HDL-C, alpha-tocopherol, urinary F(2)-isoprostanes, 2-OHE(1), 16alpha-OHE(1) and ratio of 2-OHE(1) to 16alpha-OHE(1) as compared to corn oil.

CONCLUSION

DHA supplementation at a dose of 2.14 g/day for 42 days decreases plasma cholesterol but neither does it show beneficial effects on estrogen metabolism, nor does it induce deleterious effects on the observed in vivo antioxidant or oxidative stress marker in postmenopausal vegetarian women.

SPONSORSHIP

A grant (# DOH89-TD-1062) from Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Taiwan.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Graduate Program of Nutrition, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan. t10005@cc.ntnu.edu.twNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16278686

Citation

Wu, W H., et al. "Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation On Blood Lipids, Estrogen Metabolism, and in Vivo Oxidative Stress in Postmenopausal Vegetarian Women." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 60, no. 3, 2006, pp. 386-92.
Wu WH, Lu SC, Wang TF, et al. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on blood lipids, estrogen metabolism, and in vivo oxidative stress in postmenopausal vegetarian women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006;60(3):386-92.
Wu, W. H., Lu, S. C., Wang, T. F., Jou, H. J., & Wang, T. A. (2006). Effects of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on blood lipids, estrogen metabolism, and in vivo oxidative stress in postmenopausal vegetarian women. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 60(3), 386-92.
Wu WH, et al. Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation On Blood Lipids, Estrogen Metabolism, and in Vivo Oxidative Stress in Postmenopausal Vegetarian Women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006;60(3):386-92. PubMed PMID: 16278686.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on blood lipids, estrogen metabolism, and in vivo oxidative stress in postmenopausal vegetarian women. AU - Wu,W H, AU - Lu,S C, AU - Wang,T F, AU - Jou,H J, AU - Wang,T A, PY - 2005/11/10/pubmed PY - 2006/7/25/medline PY - 2005/11/10/entrez SP - 386 EP - 92 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 60 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Vegetarians are generally deficient in long-chain n-3 fatty acids. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids have a beneficial effect on plasma lipid levels, and some studies showed that they had breast cancer suppression effect. One of the biomarkers of breast cancer risk is the ratio of urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE(1)) to 16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alpha-OHE(1)). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) supplementation on blood lipids, estrogen metabolism and oxidative stress in vegetarians. DESIGN: Single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. INTERVENTIONS: Twenty-seven postmenopausal vegetarian women were recruited. After a 2-week run-in period with 6 g placebo corn oil, the subjects were subsequently randomized to receive either 6 g corn oil (n=13) or 6 g DHA-rich algae oil (2.14 g of DHA/day) (n=14) for 6 weeks. Two subjects in corn oil group withdrew before completion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Plasma lipids, urinary 2-OHE(1) and 16alpha-OHE(1), urinary F(2)-isoprostanes and plasma alpha-tocopherol. RESULTS: Plasma LDL-DHA and EPA level increased significantly by DHA supplementation. DHA decreased plasma cholesterol (C) levels (P=0.04), but did not influence the levels of plasma TG, LDL-C and HDL-C, alpha-tocopherol, urinary F(2)-isoprostanes, 2-OHE(1), 16alpha-OHE(1) and ratio of 2-OHE(1) to 16alpha-OHE(1) as compared to corn oil. CONCLUSION: DHA supplementation at a dose of 2.14 g/day for 42 days decreases plasma cholesterol but neither does it show beneficial effects on estrogen metabolism, nor does it induce deleterious effects on the observed in vivo antioxidant or oxidative stress marker in postmenopausal vegetarian women. SPONSORSHIP: A grant (# DOH89-TD-1062) from Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Taiwan. SN - 0954-3007 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16278686/Effects_of_docosahexaenoic_acid_supplementation_on_blood_lipids_estrogen_metabolism_and_in_vivo_oxidative_stress_in_postmenopausal_vegetarian_women_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602328 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -