[Percutaneous coronary revascularization in patients over eighty: acute and long-term results].Ital Heart J Suppl 2005; 6(9):588-98IH
As a consequence of prolonged life expectancy the number of older patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease is constantly increasing. The aim of the study was to evaluate procedural success, immediate and long-term outcomes and the predictive factors of prognosis in patients aged > 80 years with high-risk coronary artery disease treated with coronary angioplasty.
In this retrospective study, we report the diagnostic and therapeutic strategies adopted in patients aged > 80 years admitted to our institution for acute coronary syndrome with or without ST-segment elevation or disabling angina (CCS class 3-4) and the immediate and long-term results of patients treated with coronary angioplasty.
A conservative approach was adopted in 180 patients (33%, group 1) out of the total number of 545 patients, while 365 patients (67%, group 2) underwent coronary angiography. Among these, 85% underwent revascularization. Relevant comorbidities were significantly higher in group 1 (59 vs 16%, p < 0.001) while a clinical presentation with ST-elevation myocardial infarction was prevalent in group 2 (15 vs 6%, p = 0.007). The in-hospital mortality was 19% in group 1 and 7.9% in group 2 (p = 0.001). Among 198 patients treated with angioplasty, procedural success was achieved in 93% of cases, with 8% in-hospital mortality. Periprocedural myocardial infarction occurred in 3.3% and major bleeding in 5.6% of patients. At multivariate analysis ST-elevation myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock were significantly related to the in-hospital mortality. At follow-up (mean 25 +/- 13 months) 13 patients died, 9 from cardiac causes and 4 from noncardiac events. Recurrence of ischemia requiring revascularization occurred in 15.9% of cases. Cumulative survival at follow-up was respectively 86% at 1 year and 83% at 5 years, while the event-free survival at 5 years was 59% in the entire group, without any significant difference among patients with multivessel disease in whom a complete vs an incomplete revascularization was performed. The presence of severe comorbidities appeared to be the only predictive factor of unfavorable outcome at long-term follow-up at multivariate analysis.
In patients aged > 80 years with symptomatic ischemic heart disease at high risk, the invasive approach was prevalent. Higher mortality rates were found in patients in whom coronary angiography was not performed. Comorbidities represent an important negative prognostic factor, impairing both the possibility of an invasive approach and conditioning an unfavorable outcome of revascularized patients. Coronary angioplasty can be successfully performed even in elderly patients. The in-hospital mortality turns out significantly higher in the setting of an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction or in cardiogenic shock patients. For patients overcoming the acute phase, high survival rates can be expected at follow-up.