Bacterial etiology of acute otitis media and clinical efficacy of amoxicillin-clavulanate versus azithromycin.Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2006; 70(5):915-23IJ
Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common acute bacterial infection in childhood and also the most frequent reason for outpatient antibiotic therapy. Little recent information about susceptibility patterns of AOM bacterial pathogens in Turkish children has been reported.
To determine the bacterial etiology of acute otitis media in children and to compare the efficiency of 3 days course of azithromycin with a 10 days course of amoxicillin-clavulanate.
This prospective, single blind, randomised comparative study was carried out in 180 children with AOM. Paracentesis was performed for middle ear fluid culture before the first dose antibiotic therapy. Children with acute otitis media were randomised to receive either low dose amoxicillin-clavulanate (45/6.4 mg/kg/day in two divided doses for 10 days) or low dose azithromycin (10mg/kg/day for 3 days). Clinical response was assessed on days 2-4, 11-13, 26-28.
Bacterial pathogens were isolated from 108 (60%) of 180 children. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common isolated pathogen (39.7%), followed by Haemophilus influenzae (20.7%), Moraxella catarrhalis (15.5%), Staphylococcus aureus (13.8%), Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (5.1%), Escherichia coli (3.4%) and Enterococcus faecalis (1.7%). This study demonstrated low resistance rates compared to studies of different countries. Although clinical response rates were better in patients treated with amoxicillin-clavulanate, this was not statistically significant [86.6% (78 of 90)] versus [95.2% (80 of 84)]. Success rates of amoxicillin-clavulanate were high for both S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae. Difference between success rates was not statistically significant (P=0.144 and 0.352).
Bacteria were isolated in 60% of AOM cases. The clinical efficiency of amoxicillin-clavulanate was found to be equal compared to azithromycin in children with acute otitis media.