Prevalence of HIV infection and AIDS symptomatology in malnourished children--a hospital based study.J Commun Dis. 2004 Mar; 36(1):45-52.JC
One hundred and seventy five malnourished children aged between 1(1/2) and 12 years attending pediatric department of Regional Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital, Imphal from January 2001 to June 2002 were screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection along with their biological mothers after pretest counselling and informed consent. The prevalence rate of HIV seropositivity among malnourished children was 21.7%. Children aged between 1(1/2) and 3 years had the highest seroprevalence (47.4%) and male to female ratio was 1.5: 1. Underweight children showed the highest seroprevalence (47.4%) and children with kwashiorkor showed least seroprevalence (10.5%). Mode of HIV transmission was vertical in 94.7%. The causative agent was HIV-I in all the cases. AIDS defining children features were seen more frequently among HIV seropositive malnourished children as compared to the seronegative children. Prolonged fever (p 0.001), oropharyngeal candidiasis (p<0.001), generalised lymphadenopathy (p<0.001) and disseminated maculopapular dermatitis (p<0.001) were significantly related to HIV infection. Among seronegative children 18.2% fulfilled the clinical criteria for AIDS and among seropositive children 94.7% had AIDS. The total mortality encountered among seropositive children was 34.2%. It is suggested to confirm findings based on larger community based data before recommending mandatory HIV testing in all malnourished children. Specific guidelines on the nutritional management of children with HIV/AIDS is needed in Manipur where HIV is spreading rapidly.