Development of nonhuman adenoviruses as vaccine vectors.Vaccine. 2006 Feb 13; 24(7):849-62.V
Human adenoviral (HAd) vectors have demonstrated great potential as vaccine vectors. Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the feasibility of vector design, robust antigen expression and protective immunity using this system. However, clinical use of adenoviral vectors for vaccine purposes is anticipated to be limited by vector immunity that is either preexisting or develops rapidly following the first inoculation with adenoviral vectors. Vector immunity inactivates the vector particles and rapidly removes the transduced cells, thereby limiting the duration of transgene expression. Due to strong vector immunity, subsequent use of the same vector is usually less efficient. In order to circumvent this limitation, nonhuman adenoviral vectors have been proposed as alternative vectors. In addition to eluding HAd immunity, these vectors possess most of the attractive features of HAd vectors. Several replication-competent or replication-defective nonhuman adenoviral vectors have been developed and investigated for their potential as vaccine-delivery vectors. Here, we review recent advances in the design and characterization of various nonhuman adenoviral vectors, and discuss their potential applications for human and animal vaccination.