Cooperation between 4-1BB and ICOS in the immune response to influenza virus revealed by studies of CD28/ICOS-deficient mice.J Immunol. 2005 Dec 01; 175(11):7288-96.JI
CD28, ICOS, and 4-1BB each play distinct roles in the CD8 T cell response to influenza virus. CD28-/- mice are severely impaired in primary CD8 T cell expansion and fail to mount a secondary response to influenza. Influenza-specific CD8 T cells expand normally in ICOS-/- mice, with only a small and transient defect late in the primary response and an unimpaired secondary response. Conversely, 4-1BB/4-1BBL interaction is dispensable for the primary CD8 T cell response to influenza, but maintains CD8 T cell survival and controls the size of the secondary response. Previous results showed that a single dose of agonistic anti-4-1BB Ab at priming allowed partial restoration of primary CD8 T cell expansion and full recovery of the secondary CD8 T cell responses to influenza in CD28-/- mice. In this study we show that anti-4-1BB fails to correct the CD8 T cell defect in CD28-/-ICOS-/- mice, suggesting that ICOS partially compensates for CD28 in this model. In support of this hypothesis, we found that anti-4-1BB enhances ICOS expression on both T cell subsets and that anti-4-1BB and anti-ICOS can synergistically activate CD4 and CD8 T cells. Furthermore, ICOS and 4-1BB can cooperate to directly stimulate isolated CD28-/- CD8 T cells. These results reveal a novel interaction between the ICOS and 4-1BB costimulatory pathways as well as unexpected redundancy between CD28 and ICOS in primary CD8 T cell expansion. These findings have implications for costimulation of human T cell responses in diseases such as AIDS or rheumatoid arthritis, in which CD28- T cells accumulate.