Origin of French virgin olive oil registered designation of origins predicted by chemometric analysis of synchronous excitation-emission fluorescence spectra.J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Nov 30; 53(24):9361-8.JA
The authentication of virgin olive oil samples requires usually the use of sophisticated and very expensive analytical techniques, so there is a need for fast and inexpensive analytical techniques for use in a quality control methodology. Virgin olive oils present an intense fluorescence spectra. Synchronous excitation-emission fluorescence spectroscopy (SEEFS) was assessed for origin determination of virgin olive oil samples from five French registered designation of origins (RDOs) (Nyons, Vallée des Baux, Aix-en-Provence, Haute-Provence, and Nice). The spectra present bands between 600 and 700 nm in emission due to chlorophylls a and b and pheophytins a and b. The bands between 275 and 400 nm in emission were attributed to alpha-, beta-, and gamma-tocopherols and to phenolic compounds, which characterize the virgin olive oils compared to other edible oils. The chemometric treatment (PLS1) of synchronous excitation-emission fluorescence spectra allows one to determine the origin of the oils from five French RDOs (Baux, Aix, Haute-Provence, Nice, and Nyons). Results were quite satisfactory, despite the similarity between two denominations of origin (Baux and Aix) that are composed by some common cultivars (Aglandau and Salonenque). The interpretation of the regression coefficients shows that RDOs are correlated to chlorophylls, pheophytins, tocopherols, and phenols compounds, which are different for each origin. SEEFS is part of a global analytic methodology that associates spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. This approach can be used for traceability and vindicates the RDOs.