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Diet and coronary heart disease. The National Heart Foundation of Australia.

Abstract

Over the last four decades there has been extensive research into the links between diet and coronary heart disease. The most recent literature is reviewed in this position statement. The clinical and public health aspects of the National Heart Foundation's nutrition policy are based on this review. The key points are as follows: 1. Saturated fatty acids A high intake of saturated fatty acids is strongly associated with elevated serum cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels and increased risk of coronary heart disease. 2. The n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids The n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (principally linoleic acid) lower serum cholesterol levels when substituted for saturated fats and probably have an independent cholesterol-lowering effect. 3. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish oils) The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce serum triglyceride levels, decrease the tendency to thrombosis and may further reduce coronary risk through other mechanisms. 4. Monounsaturated fatty acids Monounsaturated fatty acids reduce serum cholesterol levels when substituted for saturated fatty acids. It is not clear whether this is an independent effect or simply the result of displacement of saturates. 5. Trans fatty acids Trans fatty acids may increase serum cholesterol levels and can be reckoned to be equivalent to saturated fatty acids. 6. Total fat Total fat intake, independent of fatty acid type, is not strongly associated with coronary heart disease but may contribute to obesity. Associations between total fat intake and coronary heart disease are primarily mediated through the saturated fatty acid component. 7. Dietary cholesterol Dietary cholesterol increases serum cholesterol levels in some people and may increase risk of coronary heart disease. 8. Alcohol A high intake of alcohol increases blood pressure and serum triglyceride levels and increases mortality from cardiovascular disease. Light alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease. 9. Sugar The consumption of sugar is not associated with coronary heart disease. 10. Sodium and potassium High salt intake is related to hypertension especially in the subset of "salt-sensitive" people. Potassium intake may be inversely related to hypertension. 11. Overweight and obesity Abdominal obesity increases the risk of coronary heart disease probably by adversely influencing conventional risk factors. 12. Vegetarianism A high intake of plant foods reduces the risk of coronary heart disease through several mechanisms, including lowering serum cholesterol and blood pressure levels.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    National Heart Foundation, Deakin, ACT.

    , ,

    Source

    The Medical journal of Australia 156 Suppl: 1992 May 04 pg S9-16

    MeSH

    Alcohol Drinking
    Cholesterol
    Cholesterol, Dietary
    Coronary Disease
    Diet
    Diet, Vegetarian
    Dietary Fats
    Dietary Fats, Unsaturated
    Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated
    Humans
    Hypertension
    Obesity
    Potassium
    Risk Factors
    Sodium, Dietary

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    1630369

    Citation

    Shrapnel, W S., et al. "Diet and Coronary Heart Disease. the National Heart Foundation of Australia." The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 156 Suppl, 1992, pp. S9-16.
    Shrapnel WS, Calvert GD, Nestel PJ, et al. Diet and coronary heart disease. The National Heart Foundation of Australia. Med J Aust. 1992;156 Suppl:S9-16.
    Shrapnel, W. S., Calvert, G. D., Nestel, P. J., & Truswell, A. S. (1992). Diet and coronary heart disease. The National Heart Foundation of Australia. The Medical Journal of Australia, 156 Suppl, pp. S9-16.
    Shrapnel WS, et al. Diet and Coronary Heart Disease. the National Heart Foundation of Australia. Med J Aust. 1992 May 4;156 Suppl:S9-16. PubMed PMID: 1630369.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Diet and coronary heart disease. The National Heart Foundation of Australia. AU - Shrapnel,W S, AU - Calvert,G D, AU - Nestel,P J, AU - Truswell,A S, PY - 1992/5/4/pubmed PY - 1992/5/4/medline PY - 1992/5/4/entrez SP - S9 EP - 16 JF - The Medical journal of Australia JO - Med. J. Aust. VL - 156 Suppl N2 - Over the last four decades there has been extensive research into the links between diet and coronary heart disease. The most recent literature is reviewed in this position statement. The clinical and public health aspects of the National Heart Foundation's nutrition policy are based on this review. The key points are as follows: 1. Saturated fatty acids A high intake of saturated fatty acids is strongly associated with elevated serum cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels and increased risk of coronary heart disease. 2. The n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids The n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (principally linoleic acid) lower serum cholesterol levels when substituted for saturated fats and probably have an independent cholesterol-lowering effect. 3. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish oils) The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce serum triglyceride levels, decrease the tendency to thrombosis and may further reduce coronary risk through other mechanisms. 4. Monounsaturated fatty acids Monounsaturated fatty acids reduce serum cholesterol levels when substituted for saturated fatty acids. It is not clear whether this is an independent effect or simply the result of displacement of saturates. 5. Trans fatty acids Trans fatty acids may increase serum cholesterol levels and can be reckoned to be equivalent to saturated fatty acids. 6. Total fat Total fat intake, independent of fatty acid type, is not strongly associated with coronary heart disease but may contribute to obesity. Associations between total fat intake and coronary heart disease are primarily mediated through the saturated fatty acid component. 7. Dietary cholesterol Dietary cholesterol increases serum cholesterol levels in some people and may increase risk of coronary heart disease. 8. Alcohol A high intake of alcohol increases blood pressure and serum triglyceride levels and increases mortality from cardiovascular disease. Light alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease. 9. Sugar The consumption of sugar is not associated with coronary heart disease. 10. Sodium and potassium High salt intake is related to hypertension especially in the subset of "salt-sensitive" people. Potassium intake may be inversely related to hypertension. 11. Overweight and obesity Abdominal obesity increases the risk of coronary heart disease probably by adversely influencing conventional risk factors. 12. Vegetarianism A high intake of plant foods reduces the risk of coronary heart disease through several mechanisms, including lowering serum cholesterol and blood pressure levels. SN - 0025-729X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/1630369/Diet_and_coronary_heart_disease__The_National_Heart_Foundation_of_Australia_ L2 - https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=0025-729X&date=1992&volume=156&issue=&spage=S9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -