Iron deficiency and Helicobacter pylori infection in the United States.Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Jan 15; 163(2):127-34.AJ
Using data from the current National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2000), the authors assessed whether Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in the United States. Iron deficiency was defined as at least two abnormal results out of three biomarkers of iron stores. IDA was defined as a low hemoglobin level in the presence of iron deficiency. H. pylori infection was measured by serology. Complex survey estimators were used in the analysis. For 7,462 survey participants aged >or=3 years, H. pylori infection was associated with decreased serum ferritin levels (percent change = -13.9%, 95% confidence interval (CI): -19.5, -8.0) but not with levels of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, transferrin saturation, or hemoglobin (percent change = 1.5%, -2.8%, and -1.1%, respectively). Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that H. pylori infection was associated with the prevalence of IDA (prevalence odds ratio (POR) = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.5, 4.6) and, to a lesser degree, other types of anemia (POR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.7). H. pylori infection was associated with a 40% increase in the prevalence of iron deficiency (POR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.9, 2.0) after controlling for relevant covariates. In the United States, H. pylori infection was associated with iron deficiency/IDA regardless of the presence or absence of peptic ulcer disease.