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Correlates of serum lipids and lipoproteins in Congolese patients with arterial hypertension.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and the correlates of serum lipids and lipoproteins among Congolese subjects with and without arterial hypertension.

METHODS

One hundred hypertensive patients attending the outpatient clinics at the University of Kinshasa Hospital, and 100 age- and sex-matched controls recruited among hospital personnel or blood donors entered the case-control study. Their blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), plasma fibrinogen (only in patients) and fasting glucose, serum uric acid, creatinine and creatinine clearance (CrCl) were compared using the Student's t-test or Chi-square test as appropriate. Associations between continuous variables were assessed with Pearson correlation coefficients, and correlates of lipids and lipoproteins were determined using multiple linear-regression analysis.

RESULTS

Compared to healthy controls, hypertensive patients had greater BMI (p <or= 0.05) and WHR (p <or= 0.01), and higher levels of fasting plasma glucose (p <or= 0.05), serum uric acid (p <or= 0.05) and creatinine (p <or= 0.001). The average TC (4.96 +/- 1.18 mmol/l for controls vs 5.01 +/- 1.49 mmol/l for hypertensives), LDL-C (3.46 +/- 1.16 mmol/l vs 3.36 +/- 1.32 mmol/l) and HDL-C (1.19 +/- 0.39 mmol/l vs 1.27 +/- 0.39 mmol/l) were similar and within the normal ranges, whereas TG in hypertensives (1.03 +/- 0.66 mmol/l) were significantly higher (p <or= 0.05) than in controls (0.85 +/- 0.48 mmol/l). Dyslipidaemia was observed in 33 controls (33%) and 40 hypertensive patients (40%). Sixteen controls (16%) and 23 hypertensive patients (23%) had TC >or= 6.20 mmol/l. In hypertensive patients, TC (r = 0.24; p < 0.01) and LDL-C (r = 0.20; p < 0.05) were positively correlated to plasma fibrinogen. A positive correlation was also observed between TC and LDL-C (r = 0.91; p < 0.001), HDL-C and CrCl (r = 0.28; p < 0.001), and TG and glucose (r = 0.24; p < 0.01), whereas TG were negatively correlated to HDL-C (r = -0.38; p < 0.001). In multiple linear-regression analysis, LDL-C, HDL-C, TG and age accounted for 87% (R2) of variation in TC levels; plasma glucose and HDL-C for 19% (R2) of variation in TG levels; and TG and CrCl for only 17% (R2) of variation in HDL-C levels.

CONCLUSIONS

The present data indicate that dyslipidaemia affects a substantial proportion of healthy and hypertensive Congolese subjects. Furthermore, hypertension is associated with a cluster of risk factors characteristic of the metabolic syndrome, of which overweight/central obesity could be the cornerstone. Management of arterial hypertension should therefore focus both on lowering high blood pressure and correcting associated lipid disorders.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kinshasa Hospital, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Blood Glucose
    Body Mass Index
    Case-Control Studies
    Cholesterol
    Cholesterol, HDL
    Cholesterol, LDL
    Creatinine
    Democratic Republic of the Congo
    Dyslipidemias
    Female
    Fibrinogen
    Humans
    Hypertension
    Lipids
    Lipoproteins
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Triglycerides
    Uric Acid
    Waist-Hip Ratio

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    16307156

    Citation

    Lepira, F B., et al. "Correlates of Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins in Congolese Patients With Arterial Hypertension." Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa : Official Journal for Southern Africa Cardiac Society [and] South African Society of Cardiac Practitioners, vol. 16, no. 5, 2005, pp. 249-55.
    Lepira FB, M'Buyamba-Kabangu JR, Kayembe KP, et al. Correlates of serum lipids and lipoproteins in Congolese patients with arterial hypertension. Cardiovasc J S Afr. 2005;16(5):249-55.
    Lepira, F. B., M'Buyamba-Kabangu, J. R., Kayembe, K. P., & Nseka, M. N. (2005). Correlates of serum lipids and lipoproteins in Congolese patients with arterial hypertension. Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa : Official Journal for Southern Africa Cardiac Society [and] South African Society of Cardiac Practitioners, 16(5), pp. 249-55.
    Lepira FB, et al. Correlates of Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins in Congolese Patients With Arterial Hypertension. Cardiovasc J S Afr. 2005;16(5):249-55. PubMed PMID: 16307156.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Correlates of serum lipids and lipoproteins in Congolese patients with arterial hypertension. AU - Lepira,F B, AU - M'Buyamba-Kabangu,J R, AU - Kayembe,K P, AU - Nseka,M N, PY - 2005/11/25/pubmed PY - 2006/4/25/medline PY - 2005/11/25/entrez SP - 249 EP - 55 JF - Cardiovascular journal of South Africa : official journal for Southern Africa Cardiac Society [and] South African Society of Cardiac Practitioners JO - Cardiovasc J S Afr VL - 16 IS - 5 N2 - OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and the correlates of serum lipids and lipoproteins among Congolese subjects with and without arterial hypertension. METHODS: One hundred hypertensive patients attending the outpatient clinics at the University of Kinshasa Hospital, and 100 age- and sex-matched controls recruited among hospital personnel or blood donors entered the case-control study. Their blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), plasma fibrinogen (only in patients) and fasting glucose, serum uric acid, creatinine and creatinine clearance (CrCl) were compared using the Student's t-test or Chi-square test as appropriate. Associations between continuous variables were assessed with Pearson correlation coefficients, and correlates of lipids and lipoproteins were determined using multiple linear-regression analysis. RESULTS: Compared to healthy controls, hypertensive patients had greater BMI (p <or= 0.05) and WHR (p <or= 0.01), and higher levels of fasting plasma glucose (p <or= 0.05), serum uric acid (p <or= 0.05) and creatinine (p <or= 0.001). The average TC (4.96 +/- 1.18 mmol/l for controls vs 5.01 +/- 1.49 mmol/l for hypertensives), LDL-C (3.46 +/- 1.16 mmol/l vs 3.36 +/- 1.32 mmol/l) and HDL-C (1.19 +/- 0.39 mmol/l vs 1.27 +/- 0.39 mmol/l) were similar and within the normal ranges, whereas TG in hypertensives (1.03 +/- 0.66 mmol/l) were significantly higher (p <or= 0.05) than in controls (0.85 +/- 0.48 mmol/l). Dyslipidaemia was observed in 33 controls (33%) and 40 hypertensive patients (40%). Sixteen controls (16%) and 23 hypertensive patients (23%) had TC >or= 6.20 mmol/l. In hypertensive patients, TC (r = 0.24; p < 0.01) and LDL-C (r = 0.20; p < 0.05) were positively correlated to plasma fibrinogen. A positive correlation was also observed between TC and LDL-C (r = 0.91; p < 0.001), HDL-C and CrCl (r = 0.28; p < 0.001), and TG and glucose (r = 0.24; p < 0.01), whereas TG were negatively correlated to HDL-C (r = -0.38; p < 0.001). In multiple linear-regression analysis, LDL-C, HDL-C, TG and age accounted for 87% (R2) of variation in TC levels; plasma glucose and HDL-C for 19% (R2) of variation in TG levels; and TG and CrCl for only 17% (R2) of variation in HDL-C levels. CONCLUSIONS: The present data indicate that dyslipidaemia affects a substantial proportion of healthy and hypertensive Congolese subjects. Furthermore, hypertension is associated with a cluster of risk factors characteristic of the metabolic syndrome, of which overweight/central obesity could be the cornerstone. Management of arterial hypertension should therefore focus both on lowering high blood pressure and correcting associated lipid disorders. UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16307156/Correlates_of_serum_lipids_and_lipoproteins_in_Congolese_patients_with_arterial_hypertension_ L2 - http://blues.sabinet.co.za/WebZ/Authorize?sessionid=0:autho=pubmed:password=pubmed2004&amp;/AdvancedQuery?&amp;format=F&amp;next=images/ejour/cardio/cardio_v16_n5_a3.pdf DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -