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Secondhand smoke exposure and risk following the Irish smoking ban: an assessment of salivary cotinine concentrations in hotel workers and air nicotine levels in bars.
Tob Control. 2005 Dec; 14(6):384-8.TC

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate whether the Irish smoking ban has had an impact on secondhand smoke (SHS) exposures for hospitality workers.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS

Before and after the smoking ban a cohort of workers (n = 35) from a sample of city hotels (n = 15) were tested for saliva cotinine concentrations and completed questionnaires. Additionally, a random sample (n = 20) of city centre bars stratified by size (range 400-5000 square feet), were tested for air nicotine concentrations using passive samplers before and after the ban.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Salivary cotinine concentrations (ng/ml), duration of self reported exposures to secondhand smoke, air nicotine (microg/cubic metre).

RESULTS

Cotinine concentrations reduced by 69%, from 1.6 ng/ml to 0.5 ng/ml median (SD 1.29; p < 0.005). Overall 74% of subjects experienced decreases (range 16-99%), with 60% showing a halving of exposure levels at follow up. Self reported exposure to SHS at work showed a significant reduction from a median 30 hours a week to zero (p < 0.001). There was an 83% reduction in air nicotine concentrations from median 35.5 microg/m3 to 5.95 microg/m3 (p < 0.001). At baseline, three bars (16%) were below the 6.8 microg/m3 air nicotine significant risk level for lung cancer alone; at follow up this increased to 10 (53%).

CONCLUSIONS

Passive smoking and associated risks were significantly reduced but not totally eliminated. Exposure to SHS is still possible for those working where smoking is still allowed and those working where smoke may migrate from outdoor areas. Further research is required to assess the true extent and magnitude of these exposures.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Health Service Executive, Western Area, The Annex, Galway, Republic of Ireland. mauricemulcahy@eircom.netNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16319361

Citation

Mulcahy, M, et al. "Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Risk Following the Irish Smoking Ban: an Assessment of Salivary Cotinine Concentrations in Hotel Workers and Air Nicotine Levels in Bars." Tobacco Control, vol. 14, no. 6, 2005, pp. 384-8.
Mulcahy M, Evans DS, Hammond SK, et al. Secondhand smoke exposure and risk following the Irish smoking ban: an assessment of salivary cotinine concentrations in hotel workers and air nicotine levels in bars. Tob Control. 2005;14(6):384-8.
Mulcahy, M., Evans, D. S., Hammond, S. K., Repace, J. L., & Byrne, M. (2005). Secondhand smoke exposure and risk following the Irish smoking ban: an assessment of salivary cotinine concentrations in hotel workers and air nicotine levels in bars. Tobacco Control, 14(6), 384-8.
Mulcahy M, et al. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Risk Following the Irish Smoking Ban: an Assessment of Salivary Cotinine Concentrations in Hotel Workers and Air Nicotine Levels in Bars. Tob Control. 2005;14(6):384-8. PubMed PMID: 16319361.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Secondhand smoke exposure and risk following the Irish smoking ban: an assessment of salivary cotinine concentrations in hotel workers and air nicotine levels in bars. AU - Mulcahy,M, AU - Evans,D S, AU - Hammond,S K, AU - Repace,J L, AU - Byrne,M, PY - 2005/12/2/pubmed PY - 2006/1/13/medline PY - 2005/12/2/entrez SP - 384 EP - 8 JF - Tobacco control JO - Tob Control VL - 14 IS - 6 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the Irish smoking ban has had an impact on secondhand smoke (SHS) exposures for hospitality workers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Before and after the smoking ban a cohort of workers (n = 35) from a sample of city hotels (n = 15) were tested for saliva cotinine concentrations and completed questionnaires. Additionally, a random sample (n = 20) of city centre bars stratified by size (range 400-5000 square feet), were tested for air nicotine concentrations using passive samplers before and after the ban. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Salivary cotinine concentrations (ng/ml), duration of self reported exposures to secondhand smoke, air nicotine (microg/cubic metre). RESULTS: Cotinine concentrations reduced by 69%, from 1.6 ng/ml to 0.5 ng/ml median (SD 1.29; p < 0.005). Overall 74% of subjects experienced decreases (range 16-99%), with 60% showing a halving of exposure levels at follow up. Self reported exposure to SHS at work showed a significant reduction from a median 30 hours a week to zero (p < 0.001). There was an 83% reduction in air nicotine concentrations from median 35.5 microg/m3 to 5.95 microg/m3 (p < 0.001). At baseline, three bars (16%) were below the 6.8 microg/m3 air nicotine significant risk level for lung cancer alone; at follow up this increased to 10 (53%). CONCLUSIONS: Passive smoking and associated risks were significantly reduced but not totally eliminated. Exposure to SHS is still possible for those working where smoking is still allowed and those working where smoke may migrate from outdoor areas. Further research is required to assess the true extent and magnitude of these exposures. SN - 1468-3318 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16319361/Secondhand_smoke_exposure_and_risk_following_the_Irish_smoking_ban:_an_assessment_of_salivary_cotinine_concentrations_in_hotel_workers_and_air_nicotine_levels_in_bars_ L2 - https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/lookup/pmidlookup?view=long&amp;pmid=16319361 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -