[Avian influenza H5NI in Europe: little risk as yet to health in the Netherlands].Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2005 Nov 12; 149(46):2547-9.NT
Since 2004, outbreaks of fowl plague caused by a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the subtype A/H5NI have been reported from various countries in Southeast Asia. To date, 118 cases with 61 deaths have been documented in humans, due to close contact with infected poultry or raw poultry meat. Although efficient human-to-human transmission has not occurred, in a few cases transmission to blood relatives could not be ruled out. In October 2005, outbreaks of A/H5NI in poultry and wild fowl have been confirmed from Turkey, Romania and Russia, due probably to infection via migratory birds. The direct risk of infection in humans in Europe is very low and is associated with direct exposure to infected poultry. In order to address the long-term risk of a pandemic due to recombination of human and avian viruses or to mutations in the avian virus itself, guidelines for pandemic preparedness have been developed and implemented in the Netherlands.