Intake of added oils and fats among middle-aged French adults: relationships with educational level and region of residence.J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Dec; 105(12):1889-94.JA
To describe the relative contribution of 10 created food groups to total fat intake in middle-aged subjects. The relationship of added oil and fat intake with region of residence and educational level was also assessed.
Participants of the French Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants study who completed at least six 24-hour dietary records after inclusion into the study (N=6,572).
Added oils and fats were the main source of total fat intake. Animal fat and margarine intakes showed a significant inverse association with educational level, whereas oils with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were positively associated with education level. Animal fat intake was significantly higher in the western and northern parts of France (54.2% and 50.4%) and lower in the Mediterranean Coast (39.0%). A significant inverse gradient was found with oils with polyunsaturated fatty acids or MUFA in the southwest and the Mediterranean Coast compared with the northern part of France.
We showed a north to south gradient for animal fat intake and the opposite for oils with MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acid in France. This gradient parallels the known disparities for cardiovascular mortality in this country. This should contribute to adapting dietary guidelines for dietary change in a public health perspective.