Chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis terminating in extramedullary anaplastic plasmacytoma.Leuk Lymphoma. 2006 Feb; 47(2):315-22.LL
Chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis (CIMF) is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder (CMPD) with progressive fibrosis and extramedullary hematopoiesis. Similar to other CMPDs, the stem cell in CIMF has the potential to differentiate into myeloid or lymphoid lineages, and thus CIMF can culminate in acute leukemia of myeloid or, rarely, lymphoid lineage. We describe an unusual case of CIMF terminating in extramedullary anaplastic plasmacytoma. The patient was a 61-year-old male with an 11-year history of CIMF. His course was complicated by rapidly growing abdominal and inguinal lymphadenopathy. Lymph node biopsy revealed a diffuse undifferentiated infiltrate in the background of extramedullary hematopoiesis. Flow cytometric and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated plasma cell-related antigens (CD138, CD38, cytoplasmic kappa light chain), epithelial membrane antigen and CD43 in the tumor cells. The myeloid, B-cell or T-cell markers were negative. A clonal immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement was identified by polymerase chain reaction. The plasma cell origin was further confirmed by electron microscopic examination, which revealed stacks of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Monoclonal gammopathy may occur in CIMF, and rare cases of simultaneous plasma cell myeloma and CIMF have been reported in the literature. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of CIMF terminating in extramedullary anaplastic plasmacytoma.