Metal-ion-mediated oxidative stress in the gill homogenate of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): antioxidant potential of manganese, selenium, and albumin.Biol Trace Elem Res. 2005 Winter; 108(1-3):155-68.BT
Human activities play a major role in toxic and carcinogenic metal pollution of the environment. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of copper and mercury at the 400- to 1000-microM concentration range on some biochemical markers of oxidative stress, such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, and reduced glutathione (GSH) content in the rainbow trout gill homogenates with or without supplementation of manganese, selenium, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The integrity of DNA was also measured to assess metal ion toxicity. The results showed that the LPO and specific activity of GST were elevated. This indicated that cell-protecting antioxidant mechanisms were overtaxed and could not prevent membrane peroxidation. Following the addition of metals, the GSH content was also significantly reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Mercury was found to be more effective than copper. The application of antioxidants proved beneficial in inhibiting LPO, reducing GST activity, and elevating the GSH levels in the gill samples. Manganese was more effective than selenium and BSA. Surprisingly, when BSA (1.0%) was added to the gill homogenates treated with a 1000-microM concentration of metal ions, instead of alleviating malondialdehyde (MDA) generation, a drastic elevation in the MDA levels, alleviation in GST activity, and a further decrease in glutathione (GSH) levels were observed, which were most likely the result of pro-oxidant activity of BSA. The results also indicated that mercury and copper functioned as genotoxic pollutants, which altered the DNA integrity by inducing the single- and double-stranded DNA breaks in the gill cell nuclei. Collectively, toxicity of metal ions is related to the depletion of GSH content and inhibition of antioxidant enzyme GST, resulting in the propagation of LPO and DNA damage.