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Prospective studies of dairy product and calcium intakes and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 recommends that Americans increase their intake of dairy products. However, some studies have reported that increasing dairy product intake is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine associations between intakes of calcium and dairy products and the risk of prostate cancer.

METHODS

We searched Medline for prospective studies published in English-language journals from 1966 through May 2005. We identified 12 publications that used total, advanced, or fatal prostate cancer as end points and reported associations as relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by category of dairy product or calcium intake. Data were extracted using standardized data forms. Random-effects models were used to pool study results and to assess dose-response relationships between dairy product or calcium intakes and the risk of prostate cancer. We conducted sensitivity analyses by changing criteria for inclusion of studies or by using fixed-effects models. All statistical tests were two-sided.

RESULTS

Men with the highest intake of dairy products (RR =1.11 [95% CI = 1.00 to 1.22], P = .047) and calcium (RR = 1.39 [95% CI = 1.09 to 1.77], P = .018) were more likely to develop prostate cancer than men with the lowest intake. Dose-response analyses suggested that dairy product and calcium intakes were each positively associated with the risk of prostate cancer (Ptrend = .029 and .014, respectively). Sensitivity analyses generally supported these associations, although the statistical significance was attenuated. The pooled relative risks of advanced prostate cancer were 1.33 (95% CI = 1.00 to 1.78; P = .055) for the highest versus lowest intake categories of dairy products and 1.46 (95% CI = 0.65 to 3.25; P > .2) for the highest versus lowest intake categories of calcium.

CONCLUSIONS

High intake of dairy products and calcium may be associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, although the increase appears to be small.

Links

  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA.

    ,

    Source

    Journal of the National Cancer Institute 97:23 2005 Dec 07 pg 1768-77

    MeSH

    Calcium, Dietary
    Case-Control Studies
    Confidence Intervals
    Dairy Products
    Humans
    Incidence
    Male
    Mental Recall
    Odds Ratio
    Prospective Studies
    Prostatic Neoplasms
    Risk Assessment
    Risk Factors
    Selection Bias
    United States

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Meta-Analysis
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    16333032

    Citation

    Gao, Xiang, et al. "Prospective Studies of Dairy Product and Calcium Intakes and Prostate Cancer Risk: a Meta-analysis." Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 97, no. 23, 2005, pp. 1768-77.
    Gao X, LaValley MP, Tucker KL. Prospective studies of dairy product and calcium intakes and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005;97(23):1768-77.
    Gao, X., LaValley, M. P., & Tucker, K. L. (2005). Prospective studies of dairy product and calcium intakes and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 97(23), pp. 1768-77.
    Gao X, LaValley MP, Tucker KL. Prospective Studies of Dairy Product and Calcium Intakes and Prostate Cancer Risk: a Meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 Dec 7;97(23):1768-77. PubMed PMID: 16333032.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Prospective studies of dairy product and calcium intakes and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. AU - Gao,Xiang, AU - LaValley,Michael P, AU - Tucker,Katherine L, PY - 2005/12/8/pubmed PY - 2005/12/16/medline PY - 2005/12/8/entrez SP - 1768 EP - 77 JF - Journal of the National Cancer Institute JO - J. Natl. Cancer Inst. VL - 97 IS - 23 N2 - BACKGROUND: The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 recommends that Americans increase their intake of dairy products. However, some studies have reported that increasing dairy product intake is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine associations between intakes of calcium and dairy products and the risk of prostate cancer. METHODS: We searched Medline for prospective studies published in English-language journals from 1966 through May 2005. We identified 12 publications that used total, advanced, or fatal prostate cancer as end points and reported associations as relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by category of dairy product or calcium intake. Data were extracted using standardized data forms. Random-effects models were used to pool study results and to assess dose-response relationships between dairy product or calcium intakes and the risk of prostate cancer. We conducted sensitivity analyses by changing criteria for inclusion of studies or by using fixed-effects models. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Men with the highest intake of dairy products (RR =1.11 [95% CI = 1.00 to 1.22], P = .047) and calcium (RR = 1.39 [95% CI = 1.09 to 1.77], P = .018) were more likely to develop prostate cancer than men with the lowest intake. Dose-response analyses suggested that dairy product and calcium intakes were each positively associated with the risk of prostate cancer (Ptrend = .029 and .014, respectively). Sensitivity analyses generally supported these associations, although the statistical significance was attenuated. The pooled relative risks of advanced prostate cancer were 1.33 (95% CI = 1.00 to 1.78; P = .055) for the highest versus lowest intake categories of dairy products and 1.46 (95% CI = 0.65 to 3.25; P > .2) for the highest versus lowest intake categories of calcium. CONCLUSIONS: High intake of dairy products and calcium may be associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, although the increase appears to be small. SN - 1460-2105 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16333032/Prospective_studies_of_dairy_product_and_calcium_intakes_and_prostate_cancer_risk:_a_meta_analysis_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jnci/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jnci/dji402 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -