Effects of dietary zinc, iron, and copper in layer feed on distribution of these elements in eggs, liver, excreta, soil, and herbage.Poult Sci 2005; 84(10):1570-5PS
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary content and combinations of Zn, Fe, and Cu on deposition of these elements in egg components, liver, and excreta. Excreta were applied as a manure to a lawn, and 3 mo later soil and herbage samples were taken and analyzed. The experiment comprised 144 hens in 8 groups. The basal diet contained Zn, Fe, and Cu at 63.4, 92.8, and 9.0 mg/kg, respectively. It was supplemented with 1, 2, or 3 trace elements (inorganic forms) at 80 mg of Zn/kg, 120 mg of Fe/kg, and 25 mg of Cu/kg. Recovery of Zn, Fe, and Cu in eggs of hens fed the basal diet was 10.7, 9.8, and 4.4% of the alimentary intake, respectively. A Zn-Cu antagonism was observed; deposition of Zn in the yolk was significantly decreased by Cu addition and vice versa (P < 0.01). Supplementation of the basal diet with Fe increased Fe concentration in egg yolk and white by 6.3 and 2.2%, respectively. The combination of Fe with Zn and Cu, however, increased Fe concentration in the yolk and white by 36.7 and 34.9%, respectively (P < 0.01). The enrichment of eggs with the other elements was marginal (Cu) or absent (Zn). Effects of Zn, Fe, and Cu of the basal diet on liver concentrations of these elements were relatively small, and no antagonism between Zn and Cu was apparent. Supplementation of the basal diet with the combination of Zn and Fe, however, significantly decreased hepatic concentration of Cu. On the other hand, Cu supplementation significantly increased Fe concentration in livers of hens fed the Fe-supplemented diet (P < 0.01). Concentrations of Zn, Fe, and Cu in excreta were related to their dietary content. High concentrations of Zn, Fe, and Cu in excreta corresponded with limited deposition of the 3 elements in eggs and liver. Concentrations of Zn, Fe, and Cu in herbage correlated significantly with the supply of these elements by hen excreta into soil. The Zn supplied by hen excreta was more stable than Fe and Cu; thus Zn could accumulate in the soil.