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Resistance exercise training in patients with heart failure.
Sports Med. 2005; 35(12):1085-103.SM

Abstract

The utility, safety and physiological adaptations of resistance exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) are reviewed and recommendations based on current research are presented. Patients with CHF have a poor clinical status and impaired exercise capacity due to both cardiac limitations and peripheral maladaptations of the skeletal musculature. Because muscle atrophy has been demonstrated to be a hallmark of CHF, the main principle of exercise programmes in such patients is to train the peripheral muscles effectively without producing great cardiovascular stress. For this reason, new modes of training as well as new training methods have been applied. Dynamic resistance training, based on the principles of interval training, has recently been established as a safe and effective mode of exercise in patients with CHF. Patients perform dynamic strength exercises slowly, on specific machines at an intensity usually in the range of 50-60% of one repetition maximum; work phases are of short duration (< or =60 seconds) and should be followed by an adequate recovery period (work/recovery ratio >1 : 2). Patients with a low cardiac reserve can use small free weights (0.5, 1 or 3 kg), elastic bands with 8-10 repetitions, or they can perform resistance exercises in a segmental fashion. Based on recent scientific evidence, the application of specific resistance exercise programmes is safe and induces significant histochemical, metabolic and functional adaptations in skeletal muscles, contributing to the treatment of muscle weakness and specific myopathy occurring in the majority of CHF patients. Increased exercise tolerance and peak oxygen consumption (V-dotO(2peak)), changes in muscle composition, increases in muscle mass, alterations in skeletal muscle metabolism, improvement in muscular strength and endurance have also been reported in the literature after resistance exercise alone or in combination with aerobic exercise. According to new scientific evidence, appropriate dynamic resistance exercise should be recommended as a safe and effective alternative training mode (supplementary to conventional aerobic exercise) in order to counteract peripheral maladaptation and improve muscle strength, which is necessary for recreational and daily living activities, and thus quality of life, of patients with stable, CHF.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Democritus University of Thrace, Komotini, Greece.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16336010

Citation

Volaklis, Konstantinos A., and Savvas P. Tokmakidis. "Resistance Exercise Training in Patients With Heart Failure." Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), vol. 35, no. 12, 2005, pp. 1085-103.
Volaklis KA, Tokmakidis SP. Resistance exercise training in patients with heart failure. Sports Med. 2005;35(12):1085-103.
Volaklis, K. A., & Tokmakidis, S. P. (2005). Resistance exercise training in patients with heart failure. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 35(12), 1085-103.
Volaklis KA, Tokmakidis SP. Resistance Exercise Training in Patients With Heart Failure. Sports Med. 2005;35(12):1085-103. PubMed PMID: 16336010.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Resistance exercise training in patients with heart failure. AU - Volaklis,Konstantinos A, AU - Tokmakidis,Savvas P, PY - 2005/12/13/pubmed PY - 2006/5/4/medline PY - 2005/12/13/entrez SP - 1085 EP - 103 JF - Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.) JO - Sports Med VL - 35 IS - 12 N2 - The utility, safety and physiological adaptations of resistance exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) are reviewed and recommendations based on current research are presented. Patients with CHF have a poor clinical status and impaired exercise capacity due to both cardiac limitations and peripheral maladaptations of the skeletal musculature. Because muscle atrophy has been demonstrated to be a hallmark of CHF, the main principle of exercise programmes in such patients is to train the peripheral muscles effectively without producing great cardiovascular stress. For this reason, new modes of training as well as new training methods have been applied. Dynamic resistance training, based on the principles of interval training, has recently been established as a safe and effective mode of exercise in patients with CHF. Patients perform dynamic strength exercises slowly, on specific machines at an intensity usually in the range of 50-60% of one repetition maximum; work phases are of short duration (< or =60 seconds) and should be followed by an adequate recovery period (work/recovery ratio >1 : 2). Patients with a low cardiac reserve can use small free weights (0.5, 1 or 3 kg), elastic bands with 8-10 repetitions, or they can perform resistance exercises in a segmental fashion. Based on recent scientific evidence, the application of specific resistance exercise programmes is safe and induces significant histochemical, metabolic and functional adaptations in skeletal muscles, contributing to the treatment of muscle weakness and specific myopathy occurring in the majority of CHF patients. Increased exercise tolerance and peak oxygen consumption (V-dotO(2peak)), changes in muscle composition, increases in muscle mass, alterations in skeletal muscle metabolism, improvement in muscular strength and endurance have also been reported in the literature after resistance exercise alone or in combination with aerobic exercise. According to new scientific evidence, appropriate dynamic resistance exercise should be recommended as a safe and effective alternative training mode (supplementary to conventional aerobic exercise) in order to counteract peripheral maladaptation and improve muscle strength, which is necessary for recreational and daily living activities, and thus quality of life, of patients with stable, CHF. SN - 0112-1642 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16336010/Resistance_exercise_training_in_patients_with_heart_failure_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -