Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Women in Pakistan have a greater burden of clinical cardiovascular risk factors than men.
Int J Cardiol. 2006 Jan 26; 106(3):348-54.IJ

Abstract

AIMS

Migrant South Asian population in the West, particularly women, is more predisposed to central obesity and metabolic syndromes than native Caucasians. However, the burden of coexistence of clinical risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated gender disparities in native population of South Asia are not known. We analyzed the National Health Survey of Pakistan (NHSP) (1990-1994) data to study the same in the population of Pakistan.

METHODS

Data from 9442 individuals age 15 years or over from the National Health Survey of Pakistan (NHSP) (1990-1994) was analyzed. The primary outcome was defined as the coexistence of at least two of the following five clinical risk factors for CVD. Hypertension (systolic blood pressure > or = 140 mm Hg, or diastolic blood pressure > or = 90 mm Hg, or current therapy with antihypertensive medications); diabetes (non-fasting blood glucose > or = 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l), or known history of diabetes); proteinuria (dipstick urine protein > 1+); hyperlipidemia (random blood cholesterol > or = 200 mg/dl (5.17 mmol/l)), and central obesity (waist circumference of > or = 80 cm in women and > or = 90 cm in men.

RESULTS

The overall prevalence (95% confidence intervals) of the coexistence of risk factors for CVD was 17.2% (16.4-18.0%): 13.0% (12.1-14.1%) in men and 20.9% (19.8-22.0%) in women (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that men had at significantly lower odds of coexistence of risk factors than women with OR, 95% CI of 0.53, 0.47-0.61, and this difference increased in magnitude with age (interaction p < 0.001). In addition to Muhajir, Sindhi and Pashtun vs Punjabi ethnicity, factors independently associated with primary outcome were age (OR, 95% CI) (1.06, 1.05-1.06, for each one year increase), urban dwelling vs rural dwelling (1.45, 1.24-1.70), high (1.97, 1.61-2.45) and mid (1.44, 1.23-1.70) vs low socioeconomic status, body mass index (1.17, 1.15-1.18, for each one kg/m(2) increase), and high consumption of meat (1.77, 1.52-2.06) and ghee (1.26, 1.00-1.54).

CONCLUSIONS

Potentially modifiable factors including obesity and saturated fat intake are associated with increased prevalence of CVD risk factors. The high burden of multiple CVD risk factors in women compared to men highlight the need for targeting this vulnerable segment of population in CVD prevention programs in Pakistan, and, possibly neighbouring countries.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, PO Box 3500, Stadium Road, Karachi, Pakistan. tazeen.jafar@aku.edu

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16337043

Citation

Jafar, Tazeen H.. "Women in Pakistan Have a Greater Burden of Clinical Cardiovascular Risk Factors Than Men." International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 106, no. 3, 2006, pp. 348-54.
Jafar TH. Women in Pakistan have a greater burden of clinical cardiovascular risk factors than men. Int J Cardiol. 2006;106(3):348-54.
Jafar, T. H. (2006). Women in Pakistan have a greater burden of clinical cardiovascular risk factors than men. International Journal of Cardiology, 106(3), 348-54.
Jafar TH. Women in Pakistan Have a Greater Burden of Clinical Cardiovascular Risk Factors Than Men. Int J Cardiol. 2006 Jan 26;106(3):348-54. PubMed PMID: 16337043.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Women in Pakistan have a greater burden of clinical cardiovascular risk factors than men. A1 - Jafar,Tazeen H, PY - 2004/11/18/received PY - 2005/02/01/revised PY - 2005/02/06/accepted PY - 2005/12/13/pubmed PY - 2006/3/22/medline PY - 2005/12/13/entrez SP - 348 EP - 54 JF - International journal of cardiology JO - Int J Cardiol VL - 106 IS - 3 N2 - AIMS: Migrant South Asian population in the West, particularly women, is more predisposed to central obesity and metabolic syndromes than native Caucasians. However, the burden of coexistence of clinical risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated gender disparities in native population of South Asia are not known. We analyzed the National Health Survey of Pakistan (NHSP) (1990-1994) data to study the same in the population of Pakistan. METHODS: Data from 9442 individuals age 15 years or over from the National Health Survey of Pakistan (NHSP) (1990-1994) was analyzed. The primary outcome was defined as the coexistence of at least two of the following five clinical risk factors for CVD. Hypertension (systolic blood pressure > or = 140 mm Hg, or diastolic blood pressure > or = 90 mm Hg, or current therapy with antihypertensive medications); diabetes (non-fasting blood glucose > or = 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l), or known history of diabetes); proteinuria (dipstick urine protein > 1+); hyperlipidemia (random blood cholesterol > or = 200 mg/dl (5.17 mmol/l)), and central obesity (waist circumference of > or = 80 cm in women and > or = 90 cm in men. RESULTS: The overall prevalence (95% confidence intervals) of the coexistence of risk factors for CVD was 17.2% (16.4-18.0%): 13.0% (12.1-14.1%) in men and 20.9% (19.8-22.0%) in women (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that men had at significantly lower odds of coexistence of risk factors than women with OR, 95% CI of 0.53, 0.47-0.61, and this difference increased in magnitude with age (interaction p < 0.001). In addition to Muhajir, Sindhi and Pashtun vs Punjabi ethnicity, factors independently associated with primary outcome were age (OR, 95% CI) (1.06, 1.05-1.06, for each one year increase), urban dwelling vs rural dwelling (1.45, 1.24-1.70), high (1.97, 1.61-2.45) and mid (1.44, 1.23-1.70) vs low socioeconomic status, body mass index (1.17, 1.15-1.18, for each one kg/m(2) increase), and high consumption of meat (1.77, 1.52-2.06) and ghee (1.26, 1.00-1.54). CONCLUSIONS: Potentially modifiable factors including obesity and saturated fat intake are associated with increased prevalence of CVD risk factors. The high burden of multiple CVD risk factors in women compared to men highlight the need for targeting this vulnerable segment of population in CVD prevention programs in Pakistan, and, possibly neighbouring countries. SN - 0167-5273 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16337043/Women_in_Pakistan_have_a_greater_burden_of_clinical_cardiovascular_risk_factors_than_men_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167-5273(05)00435-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -