Inhibitory mode of N-phenyl-4-pyrazolo[1,5-b] pyridazin-3-ylpyrimidin-2-amine series derivatives against GSK-3: molecular docking and 3D-QSAR analyses.Protein Eng Des Sel. 2006 Feb; 19(2):47-54.PE
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) inhibition is an important research topic because of its wide range of associated health implications. The interaction mode of a series of N-phenyl-4-pyrazolo[1,5-b]pyridazin-3-ylpyrimidin-2-amine compounds with human GSK-3 has been studied using molecular docking and 3D-QSAR approaches. In the 3D-QSAR studies, the molecular alignment and conformation determination are so important that they affect the success of a model. Flexible docking (AutoDock3.0.5) was used for the determination of 'active' conformation and molecular alignment. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were used to develop 3D-QSAR models of 80 N-phenyl-4-pyrazolo[1,5-b]pyridazin-3-ylpyrimidin-2-amine compounds. The r(2) values were 0.870 and 0.861 for CoMFA and CoMSIA models, respectively. The predictive ability of these models was validated by 10 compounds of the test set. Mapping these models back to the topology of the active site of GSK-3 led to a better understanding of the vital N-phenyl-4-pyrazolo[1,5-b]pyridazin-3-ylpyrimidin-2-amines-GSK-3 interactions. The results demonstrate that combination of ligand-based and receptor-based modeling is a powerful approach to build 3D-QSAR models. The interaction mode from this study may be helpful for the design of a novel inhibitor and guide the selection of candidate sites for further experimental studies on site-directed mutagenesis.