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Are national vitamin D guidelines sufficient to maintain adequate blood levels in children?
Can J Public Health. 2005 Nov-Dec; 96(6):443-9.CJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Vitamin D insufficiency (defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations <40 nmol/L) may be associated with subclinical adverse effects on bone mineralization. The current vitamin D status of children and adolescents in Canada has not been described. The purpose of this study was to describe the association between 25(OH)D serum concentration and dietary vitamin D intake, and other potential determinants of vitamin D status, among a sample of children and adolescents aged 2-16 years presenting to a pediatric emergency department in Edmonton, Alberta (latitude 52 degrees N) at the end of winter.

METHODS

In early April 2003, 90 patients between the ages of 2 and 16 years who presented to the pediatric emergency department in Edmonton volunteered to participate. All participants and/or parents or guardians completed questionnaires regarding potential risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency, detailed dietary assessments, and anthropometric measurements. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in 68 of 90 participants.

RESULTS

The mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 47.2 nmol/L (95% CI 43.8-50.8 nmol/L). 34% of participants had vitamin D insufficiency (<40 nmol/L) and 6% were deficient (<25 nmol/L). Boys and girls aged 9-16 years had a prevalence of insufficiency of 69% and 35% respectively, while boys and girls 2-8 years old had a prevalence of insufficiency of 22% and 8% respectively. Dietary vitamin D intake per kilogram body weight was the most important independent determinant of 25(OH)D concentration (r = 0.446, p<0.001). Vitamin D intake, age and male sex best predicted insufficiency. No subject was insufficient if they had an intake >0.45 mcg/kg/day.

INTERPRETATION

Vitamin D insufficiency may be common among children and adolescents at the beginning of spring. The risk may be highest among older children because vitamin D intake does not adequately rise in proportion with increases in body mass. Further studies are needed to assess whether Canadian dietary vitamin D recommendations should be changed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16350869

Citation

Roth, Daniel E., et al. "Are National Vitamin D Guidelines Sufficient to Maintain Adequate Blood Levels in Children?" Canadian Journal of Public Health = Revue Canadienne De Sante Publique, vol. 96, no. 6, 2005, pp. 443-9.
Roth DE, Martz P, Yeo R, et al. Are national vitamin D guidelines sufficient to maintain adequate blood levels in children? Can J Public Health. 2005;96(6):443-9.
Roth, D. E., Martz, P., Yeo, R., Prosser, C., Bell, M., & Jones, A. B. (2005). Are national vitamin D guidelines sufficient to maintain adequate blood levels in children? Canadian Journal of Public Health = Revue Canadienne De Sante Publique, 96(6), 443-9.
Roth DE, et al. Are National Vitamin D Guidelines Sufficient to Maintain Adequate Blood Levels in Children. Can J Public Health. 2005 Nov-Dec;96(6):443-9. PubMed PMID: 16350869.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Are national vitamin D guidelines sufficient to maintain adequate blood levels in children? AU - Roth,Daniel E, AU - Martz,Pat, AU - Yeo,Rochelle, AU - Prosser,Connie, AU - Bell,Melissa, AU - Jones,Adrian B, PY - 2005/12/15/pubmed PY - 2005/12/31/medline PY - 2005/12/15/entrez SP - 443 EP - 9 JF - Canadian journal of public health = Revue canadienne de sante publique JO - Can J Public Health VL - 96 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Vitamin D insufficiency (defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations <40 nmol/L) may be associated with subclinical adverse effects on bone mineralization. The current vitamin D status of children and adolescents in Canada has not been described. The purpose of this study was to describe the association between 25(OH)D serum concentration and dietary vitamin D intake, and other potential determinants of vitamin D status, among a sample of children and adolescents aged 2-16 years presenting to a pediatric emergency department in Edmonton, Alberta (latitude 52 degrees N) at the end of winter. METHODS: In early April 2003, 90 patients between the ages of 2 and 16 years who presented to the pediatric emergency department in Edmonton volunteered to participate. All participants and/or parents or guardians completed questionnaires regarding potential risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency, detailed dietary assessments, and anthropometric measurements. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in 68 of 90 participants. RESULTS: The mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 47.2 nmol/L (95% CI 43.8-50.8 nmol/L). 34% of participants had vitamin D insufficiency (<40 nmol/L) and 6% were deficient (<25 nmol/L). Boys and girls aged 9-16 years had a prevalence of insufficiency of 69% and 35% respectively, while boys and girls 2-8 years old had a prevalence of insufficiency of 22% and 8% respectively. Dietary vitamin D intake per kilogram body weight was the most important independent determinant of 25(OH)D concentration (r = 0.446, p<0.001). Vitamin D intake, age and male sex best predicted insufficiency. No subject was insufficient if they had an intake >0.45 mcg/kg/day. INTERPRETATION: Vitamin D insufficiency may be common among children and adolescents at the beginning of spring. The risk may be highest among older children because vitamin D intake does not adequately rise in proportion with increases in body mass. Further studies are needed to assess whether Canadian dietary vitamin D recommendations should be changed. SN - 0008-4263 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16350869/Are_national_vitamin_D_guidelines_sufficient_to_maintain_adequate_blood_levels_in_children L2 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/16350869/ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -