[Clinical and epidemiological features of leptospirosis in Bolívar state, Venezuela. Comparison of diagnostic methods: LEPTO-Dipstick and plaque macroscopic agglutination test].Invest Clin. 2005 Dec; 46(4):317-28.IC
Leptospirosis is caused by numerous serovars of Leptospira interrogans. The infection is acquired through the contact of softened skin, mucous and conjunctive with the urine of animals and humans infected by animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and epidemiological features of leptospirosis in Bolívar state Venezuela and to compare the sensibility and specificity of the LEPTO-Dipstick, with the test of macroscopic agglutination in plate with the termorresistent antigen (TR). Thirty one sample of serums were processed of patients with leptospirosis clinic, admitted in the Hospital Universitario "Ruiz y Páez" of Ciudad Bolívar during 12 months. Detection IgM antibodies of anti-Leptospiras was carried out by means of LEPTO-Dipstick and antigen TR. The Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) was also, carried out. The general prevalence of leptospirosis in patients who attended the "Ruiz y Paez" Hospital was of 80.6% (n = 25) by means of the determination of the termorresistent antigen. The most frequent serovars identified in Bolívar State, were the serovars: icterohaemorrhagiae, copenhageni (21.3%), autummalis and australis (12.8%). TR antigen and LEPTO Dipstick had a sensibility of 80% and a specificity of 25%. The agreement between both methods was null (Kappa: -0.2). Bolívar state has a high leptospirosis prevalence and the infection should be discarded in those patients with long-term fever and risk factors for the illness.