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A prospective study of meat and meat mutagens and prostate cancer risk.

Abstract

High-temperature cooked meat contains heterocyclic amines, including 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). In rodents, a high intake of PhIP induces prostate tumors. We prospectively investigated the association between meat and meat mutagens, specifically PhIP, and prostate cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Diet was assessed using a 137-item food frequency questionnaire and a detailed meat-cooking questionnaire linked to a database for BaP and the heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-b]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx), and PhIP. During follow-up, we ascertained a total of 1,338 prostate cancer cases among 29,361 men; of these, 868 were incident cases (diagnosed after the first year of follow-up) and 520 were advanced cases (stage III or IV or a Gleason score of > or =7). Total, red, or white meat intake was not associated with prostate cancer risk. More than 10 g/d of very well done meat, compared with no consumption, was associated with a 1.4-fold increased risk of prostate cancer [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.05-1.92] and a 1.7-fold increased risk (95% CI, 1.19-2.40) of incident disease. Although there was no association with MeIQx and DiMeIQx, the highest quintile of PhIP was associated with a 1.2-fold increased risk of prostate cancer (95% CI, 1.01-1.48) and a 1.3-fold increased risk of incident disease (95% CI, 1.01-1.61). In conclusion, very well done meat was positively associated with prostate cancer risk. In addition, this study lends epidemiologic support to the animal studies, which have implicated PhIP as a prostate carcinogen.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. crossa@mail.nih.gov

    , , , , ,

    Source

    Cancer research 65:24 2005 Dec 15 pg 11779-84

    MeSH

    Aged
    Benzo(a)pyrene
    Cooking
    Diet
    Humans
    Imidazoles
    Male
    Meat
    Middle Aged
    Mutagens
    Prospective Studies
    Prostatic Neoplasms
    Quinoxalines
    Risk Factors
    Surveys and Questionnaires

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Multicenter Study
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    16357191

    Citation

    Cross, Amanda J., et al. "A Prospective Study of Meat and Meat Mutagens and Prostate Cancer Risk." Cancer Research, vol. 65, no. 24, 2005, pp. 11779-84.
    Cross AJ, Peters U, Kirsh VA, et al. A prospective study of meat and meat mutagens and prostate cancer risk. Cancer Res. 2005;65(24):11779-84.
    Cross, A. J., Peters, U., Kirsh, V. A., Andriole, G. L., Reding, D., Hayes, R. B., & Sinha, R. (2005). A prospective study of meat and meat mutagens and prostate cancer risk. Cancer Research, 65(24), pp. 11779-84.
    Cross AJ, et al. A Prospective Study of Meat and Meat Mutagens and Prostate Cancer Risk. Cancer Res. 2005 Dec 15;65(24):11779-84. PubMed PMID: 16357191.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - A prospective study of meat and meat mutagens and prostate cancer risk. AU - Cross,Amanda J, AU - Peters,Ulrike, AU - Kirsh,Victoria A, AU - Andriole,Gerald L, AU - Reding,Douglas, AU - Hayes,Richard B, AU - Sinha,Rashmi, PY - 2005/12/17/pubmed PY - 2006/2/24/medline PY - 2005/12/17/entrez SP - 11779 EP - 84 JF - Cancer research JO - Cancer Res. VL - 65 IS - 24 N2 - High-temperature cooked meat contains heterocyclic amines, including 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). In rodents, a high intake of PhIP induces prostate tumors. We prospectively investigated the association between meat and meat mutagens, specifically PhIP, and prostate cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Diet was assessed using a 137-item food frequency questionnaire and a detailed meat-cooking questionnaire linked to a database for BaP and the heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-b]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx), and PhIP. During follow-up, we ascertained a total of 1,338 prostate cancer cases among 29,361 men; of these, 868 were incident cases (diagnosed after the first year of follow-up) and 520 were advanced cases (stage III or IV or a Gleason score of > or =7). Total, red, or white meat intake was not associated with prostate cancer risk. More than 10 g/d of very well done meat, compared with no consumption, was associated with a 1.4-fold increased risk of prostate cancer [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.05-1.92] and a 1.7-fold increased risk (95% CI, 1.19-2.40) of incident disease. Although there was no association with MeIQx and DiMeIQx, the highest quintile of PhIP was associated with a 1.2-fold increased risk of prostate cancer (95% CI, 1.01-1.48) and a 1.3-fold increased risk of incident disease (95% CI, 1.01-1.61). In conclusion, very well done meat was positively associated with prostate cancer risk. In addition, this study lends epidemiologic support to the animal studies, which have implicated PhIP as a prostate carcinogen. SN - 0008-5472 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16357191/full_citation L2 - http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16357191 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -