Response of wheat seedlings to ni stress: effects of supplemental calcium.Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2006 Apr; 50(3):346-52.AE
The effect of excess Ni (1 mM Ni) on wheat plants as well as the role of Ca (1 mM Ni+5000 microM Ca) for amelioration of toxicity and recovery of growth and photosynthesis in Ni-stressed wheat was evaluated. Growth, nutrient status (Ca, Mg, Fe, K, Na), and photosynthesis showed a distinct decrease strictly related to the period of treatment. Calcium ameliorated to a certain extent toxic symptoms of Ni, due to antagonistic action between Ni and Ca ions. Since chlorophyll content and variable fluorescence (Fv) decreased significantly, but Fo did not particularly change, the decrease of t1/2 with increasing duration of Ni exposure indicates negative changes on the acceptor side of PSII, which also may result from diminution of Calvin cycle. The maximum quantum yield for energy trapping was also suppressed. Plant transfer to Hoagland solution+5000 microM Ca caused recovery to plant morphology and physiology. Even in control plants, during recovery period an increased Ca concentration in plant tissues with concomitant increased rates of growth and morphology was observed. Ni concentration in plants exposed to 1 mM Ni+5000 microM Ca was lower than in plants exposed to 1 mM Ni. In all treatments a certain increase of plant nutrients was observed during recovery.