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Pharmacological content of tablets sold as "ecstasy": results from an online testing service.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006 Jul 27; 83(3):247-54.DA

Abstract

PURPOSE

This study examined the pharmacological content of tablets sold as ecstasy, the variation of tablet content by geographic region, and change in tablet content between 1999 and 2005.

METHODS

The sample was comprised of tablets anonymously submitted for laboratory testing between 1999 and 2005 (n=1214). Tablet height, width, geographic region, and year of submission were all used to predict the pharmacological content of the tablets.

RESULTS

Overall, 39% of the tablets were comprised of MDMA only, 46% only contained substances other than MDMA and 15% were mixtures of MDMA and other substances. Tablet height and width were inversely related to tablet purity. Ecstasy tablets from California and Florida had decreased likelihoods of containing non-MDMA substances. The purity of tablets decreased over time, which was largely a result of an increasing number of tablets comprised of MDMA along with other substances.

CONCLUSIONS

Ecstasy users may be putting themselves at increased risk of substance-induced anxiety, mood, and psychotic disorders by unknowingly ingesting substances other than MDMA. To decrease detrimental health effects, prevention programs should emphasize the impurity of ecstasy tablets and focus on the health impacts of these substances, particularly for populations at high-risk of substance-induced disorders.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Sociology, VU Station B Box 351811, Vanderbilt University, 2301 Vanderbilt Place, Nashville, TN 37235-1811, USA. emily.e.tanner-smith@vanderbilt.edu

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16364567

Citation

Tanner-Smith, Emily E.. "Pharmacological Content of Tablets Sold as "ecstasy": Results From an Online Testing Service." Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 83, no. 3, 2006, pp. 247-54.
Tanner-Smith EE. Pharmacological content of tablets sold as "ecstasy": results from an online testing service. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006;83(3):247-54.
Tanner-Smith, E. E. (2006). Pharmacological content of tablets sold as "ecstasy": results from an online testing service. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 83(3), 247-54.
Tanner-Smith EE. Pharmacological Content of Tablets Sold as "ecstasy": Results From an Online Testing Service. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006 Jul 27;83(3):247-54. PubMed PMID: 16364567.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Pharmacological content of tablets sold as "ecstasy": results from an online testing service. A1 - Tanner-Smith,Emily E, Y1 - 2005/12/20/ PY - 2005/07/27/received PY - 2005/11/20/revised PY - 2005/11/21/accepted PY - 2005/12/21/pubmed PY - 2006/12/16/medline PY - 2005/12/21/entrez SP - 247 EP - 54 JF - Drug and alcohol dependence JO - Drug Alcohol Depend VL - 83 IS - 3 N2 - PURPOSE: This study examined the pharmacological content of tablets sold as ecstasy, the variation of tablet content by geographic region, and change in tablet content between 1999 and 2005. METHODS: The sample was comprised of tablets anonymously submitted for laboratory testing between 1999 and 2005 (n=1214). Tablet height, width, geographic region, and year of submission were all used to predict the pharmacological content of the tablets. RESULTS: Overall, 39% of the tablets were comprised of MDMA only, 46% only contained substances other than MDMA and 15% were mixtures of MDMA and other substances. Tablet height and width were inversely related to tablet purity. Ecstasy tablets from California and Florida had decreased likelihoods of containing non-MDMA substances. The purity of tablets decreased over time, which was largely a result of an increasing number of tablets comprised of MDMA along with other substances. CONCLUSIONS: Ecstasy users may be putting themselves at increased risk of substance-induced anxiety, mood, and psychotic disorders by unknowingly ingesting substances other than MDMA. To decrease detrimental health effects, prevention programs should emphasize the impurity of ecstasy tablets and focus on the health impacts of these substances, particularly for populations at high-risk of substance-induced disorders. SN - 0376-8716 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16364567/Pharmacological_content_of_tablets_sold_as_"ecstasy":_results_from_an_online_testing_service_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0376-8716(05)00371-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -