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Dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Calcium, vitamin D, and dairy products are highly correlated factors, each with potential roles in breast carcinogenesis. Few prospective studies have examined these relationships in postmenopausal women.

METHODS

Participants in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort completed a detailed questionnaire on diet, vitamin and mineral supplement use, medical history, and lifestyle in 1992 to 1993. After exclusion of women with a history of cancer and incomplete dietary data, 68,567 postmenopausal women remained for analysis. During follow-up through August 31, 2001, we identified 2,855 incident cases of breast cancer. Multivariate-adjusted rate ratios (RR) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models.

RESULTS

Women with the highest intake of dietary calcium (>1,250 mg/d) were at a lower risk of breast cancer than those reporting < or =500 mg/d [RR, 0.80; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.67-0.95; P(trend) = 0.02]; however, neither use of supplemental calcium nor vitamin D intake was associated with risk. Consumption starting at two or more servings of dairy products per day was likewise inversely associated with risk (RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.69-0.95; P(trend) = 0.002, compared with <0.5 servings/d). The associations were slightly stronger in women with estrogen receptor-positive tumors comparing highest to lowest intake: dietary calcium (RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.51-0.88; P(trend) = 0.004); dairy products (RR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.57-0.93; P(trend) = 0.0003), and dietary vitamin D (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.59-0.93; P(trend) = 0.006).

CONCLUSIONS

Our results support the hypothesis that dietary calcium and/or some other components in dairy products may modestly reduce risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. The stronger inverse associations among estrogen receptor-positive tumors deserve further study.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Epidemiology and Surveillance Research, American Cancer Society, 1599 Clifton Road Northeast, Atlanta, GA 30329-4251, USA. marji.mccullough@cancer.org

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    Source

    MeSH

    Breast Neoplasms
    Calcium, Dietary
    Dairy Products
    Female
    Humans
    Incidence
    Life Style
    Middle Aged
    Postmenopause
    Proportional Hazards Models
    Prospective Studies
    Risk Factors
    Surveys and Questionnaires
    United States
    Vitamin D

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    16365007

    Citation

    McCullough, Marjorie L., et al. "Dairy, Calcium, and Vitamin D Intake and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort." Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored By the American Society of Preventive Oncology, vol. 14, no. 12, 2005, pp. 2898-904.
    McCullough ML, Rodriguez C, Diver WR, et al. Dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14(12):2898-904.
    McCullough, M. L., Rodriguez, C., Diver, W. R., Feigelson, H. S., Stevens, V. L., Thun, M. J., & Calle, E. E. (2005). Dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored By the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 14(12), pp. 2898-904.
    McCullough ML, et al. Dairy, Calcium, and Vitamin D Intake and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14(12):2898-904. PubMed PMID: 16365007.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. AU - McCullough,Marjorie L, AU - Rodriguez,Carmen, AU - Diver,W Ryan, AU - Feigelson,Heather Spencer, AU - Stevens,Victoria L, AU - Thun,Michael J, AU - Calle,Eugenia E, PY - 2005/12/21/pubmed PY - 2006/3/1/medline PY - 2005/12/21/entrez SP - 2898 EP - 904 JF - Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology JO - Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. VL - 14 IS - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND: Calcium, vitamin D, and dairy products are highly correlated factors, each with potential roles in breast carcinogenesis. Few prospective studies have examined these relationships in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Participants in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort completed a detailed questionnaire on diet, vitamin and mineral supplement use, medical history, and lifestyle in 1992 to 1993. After exclusion of women with a history of cancer and incomplete dietary data, 68,567 postmenopausal women remained for analysis. During follow-up through August 31, 2001, we identified 2,855 incident cases of breast cancer. Multivariate-adjusted rate ratios (RR) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Women with the highest intake of dietary calcium (>1,250 mg/d) were at a lower risk of breast cancer than those reporting < or =500 mg/d [RR, 0.80; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.67-0.95; P(trend) = 0.02]; however, neither use of supplemental calcium nor vitamin D intake was associated with risk. Consumption starting at two or more servings of dairy products per day was likewise inversely associated with risk (RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.69-0.95; P(trend) = 0.002, compared with <0.5 servings/d). The associations were slightly stronger in women with estrogen receptor-positive tumors comparing highest to lowest intake: dietary calcium (RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.51-0.88; P(trend) = 0.004); dairy products (RR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.57-0.93; P(trend) = 0.0003), and dietary vitamin D (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.59-0.93; P(trend) = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that dietary calcium and/or some other components in dairy products may modestly reduce risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. The stronger inverse associations among estrogen receptor-positive tumors deserve further study. SN - 1055-9965 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16365007/Dairy_calcium_and_vitamin_D_intake_and_postmenopausal_breast_cancer_risk_in_the_Cancer_Prevention_Study_II_Nutrition_Cohort_ L2 - http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&amp;pmid=16365007 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -