Reduction of mother-to-child transmission of HIV at Saint Camille Medical Centre in Burkina Faso.J Med Virol 2006; 78(2):148-52JM
One thousand three hundred and twenty-eight pregnant women with less than 32 weeks of amenorrhea received voluntary counseling and testing at Saint Camille Medical Center from May 1, 2002 to December 30, 2004. Following informed consent and pre-test counseling, HIV screening was performed in 1,202 women. According to the prevention protocol, HIV-positive women received a single dose of Nevirapine (200 mg) during their labor, while their newborn received a single dose of Nevirapine (2 mg/kg) within 72 hr from birth. HIV seroprevalence (11.2%) was higher than in the overall population. One hundred and ninety-three children were born at the end of December 2004; 53 children (27.5%) followed a short breastfeeding protocol for 4 months, while 140 (72.5%) were fed artificially. All the children underwent RT-PCR test for HIV 5-6 months after their birth: 173 (89.6%) were HIV negative whilst 20 children (10.4%) were HIV positive. Out of the 20 positive children 5/53 (9.4%) had received breast milk for 4 months, while the remaining 15/140 (10.7%) had been fed artificially (P = 0.814). Artificially fed babies (3/140 (2.1%)) and 1/53 (1.9%) of those breast fed for 4 months deceased according to mortality rate of HIV-positive children. This shows that there is no statistically significant difference (P = 0.648) between the mortality of artificially fed (3/140 or 2.1%) and breast-fed (1/53 or 1.9%) children. Artificially fed children (20/140 (14.3%)) and 5/53 (9.4%) of breast-fed children died within 6-10 months. This figure indicates that there is no significant difference between the mortality rate of artificially and that of breast-fed children (P = 0.427). Although the HIV prevention program reduced significantly the vertical transmission of HIV at Saint Camille Medical Center, the mortality of artificially fed children was still high due to gastrointestinal diseases. The HIV diagnosis by RT-PCR technique was of great help in the early identification of HIV-infected children.