Single, binary and multi-component adsorption of copper and cadmium from aqueous solutions on Kraft lignin--a biosorbent.J Colloid Interface Sci. 2006 May 15; 297(2):489-504.JC
A new biosorbent for removing toxic metal ions from water/industrial wastewater has been investigated using by-product lignin from paper production. Lignin was extracted from black liquor waste, characterized and utilized for the removal of copper and cadmium from aqueous solutions in single, binary and multi-component systems. Adsorption studies were conducted at different temperatures, lignin particle sizes, pHs and solid to liquid ratios. All the studies were conducted by a batch method to determine equilibrium and kinetic parameters. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied. The Langmuir model fits best the equilibrium isotherm data. The maximum lignin adsorption capacities at 25 degrees C were 87.05 mg/g (1.37 mmol/g) and 137.14 mg/g (1.22 mmol/g) for Cu(II) and Cd(II), respectively. Adsorption of Cu2+ (68.63 mg/g at 10 degrees C and 94.68 mg/g at 40 degrees C) and Cd2+ (59.58 mg/g at 10 degrees C and 175.36 mg/g at 40 degrees C) increased with an increase in temperature. Copper and cadmium adsorption followed pseudo-second order rate kinetics. From kinetic studies, various rate and thermodynamic parameters such as effective diffusion coefficients, activation energy, and activation entropy were evaluated. Adsorption occurs through a particle diffusion mechanism at temperatures 10 and 25 degrees C while at 40 degrees C it occurs through a film diffusion mechanism. The sorption capacity of black liquor lignin is higher than many other adsorbents/carbons/biosorbents utilized for the removal of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from water/wastewater in single and multi-component systems.