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Sources of energy and nutrients in the diets of infants and toddlers.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify major sources of energy and 24 nutrients and dietary constituents in the diets of US infants and toddlers and to describe shifts in major nutrient sources as children age.

DESIGN

Data from 24-hour recalls collected in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study were analyzed to determine the percentage contribution of foods and supplements to total intakes of energy, nutrients, and other dietary constituents. A total of 3,586 unique foods and dietary supplements were reported. Reported foods and supplements were classified into 71 groups based on similarities in nutrient content and use. Nine-hundred seventy-nine food mixtures were disaggregated into their ingredients and ingredients were classified into one of the 71 groups using the same decision rules that guided classification of foods analyzed at the whole food level.

SUBJECTS/SETTING

A national random sample of 3,022 US infants and toddlers 4 to 24 months of age.

STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED

The population proportion formula was used to determine the percentage contribution of each of the 71 groups to total intakes. This was done by summing the weighted amount of a given nutrient provided by a given group for all individuals in the sample and dividing by the total weighted amount of that nutrient consumed by all individuals from all foods and supplements. Groups that provided at least 1% of the nutrient in question were rank-ordered. Separate tabulations were prepared for three age groups (4-5 months, 6-11 months, and 12-24 months).

RESULTS

Infant formula, breast milk, and milk are major contributors of energy and most nutrients in the diets of infants and toddlers. Among toddlers, juices and fruit-flavored drinks are the second and third most important sources of energy. Fortified foods make substantial contributions to intakes of many essential nutrients, and these contributions increase as children age. For example, among toddlers, fortified grain-based foods make substantial contributions to intakes of vitamin A, iron, and folate, relative to foods that are naturally rich in these nutrients. Supplements also make substantial contributions to intakes of vitamins and selected minerals, particularly among toddlers.

CONCLUSIONS

In assessing dietary intakes of infants and toddlers, dietetics professionals need to carefully consider contributions of fortified foods and supplements. Dietetics professionals should educate caregivers of infants and toddlers about the importance of foods (rather than just nutrients) in promoting health and about the importance of early feeding practices in the development of lifelong eating habits. Caregivers should be encouraged to avoid relying on fortified foods and supplements to meet nutrient needs and educated about the potential risk of excessive intakes. Caregivers of toddlers and infants over 4 to 6 months of age who are consuming solid foods should be encouraged to feed a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, as well as foods naturally rich in iron.

Links

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Nutrition and Regulatory Affairs, Gerber Products Co., Parsippany, NJ, USA. mfox@mathematica-mpr.com

    , ,

    Source

    Journal of the American Dietetic Association 106:1 Suppl 1 2006 Jan pg S28-42

    MeSH

    Animals
    Beverages
    Child, Preschool
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Diet
    Diet Surveys
    Dietary Supplements
    Energy Intake
    Female
    Food, Fortified
    Fruit
    Humans
    Infant
    Infant Food
    Infant Formula
    Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
    Male
    Mental Recall
    Milk
    Milk, Human
    Minerals
    Nutritional Requirements
    United States
    Vegetables
    Vitamins
    Weaning

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    16376628

    Citation

    Fox, Mary Kay, et al. "Sources of Energy and Nutrients in the Diets of Infants and Toddlers." Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 106, no. 1 Suppl 1, 2006, pp. S28-42.
    Fox MK, Reidy K, Novak T, et al. Sources of energy and nutrients in the diets of infants and toddlers. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106(1 Suppl 1):S28-42.
    Fox, M. K., Reidy, K., Novak, T., & Ziegler, P. (2006). Sources of energy and nutrients in the diets of infants and toddlers. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 106(1 Suppl 1), pp. S28-42.
    Fox MK, et al. Sources of Energy and Nutrients in the Diets of Infants and Toddlers. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106(1 Suppl 1):S28-42. PubMed PMID: 16376628.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Sources of energy and nutrients in the diets of infants and toddlers. AU - Fox,Mary Kay, AU - Reidy,Kathleen, AU - Novak,Timothy, AU - Ziegler,Paula, PY - 2005/06/21/received PY - 2005/12/27/pubmed PY - 2006/3/21/medline PY - 2005/12/27/entrez SP - S28 EP - 42 JF - Journal of the American Dietetic Association JO - J Am Diet Assoc VL - 106 IS - 1 Suppl 1 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To identify major sources of energy and 24 nutrients and dietary constituents in the diets of US infants and toddlers and to describe shifts in major nutrient sources as children age. DESIGN: Data from 24-hour recalls collected in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study were analyzed to determine the percentage contribution of foods and supplements to total intakes of energy, nutrients, and other dietary constituents. A total of 3,586 unique foods and dietary supplements were reported. Reported foods and supplements were classified into 71 groups based on similarities in nutrient content and use. Nine-hundred seventy-nine food mixtures were disaggregated into their ingredients and ingredients were classified into one of the 71 groups using the same decision rules that guided classification of foods analyzed at the whole food level. SUBJECTS/SETTING: A national random sample of 3,022 US infants and toddlers 4 to 24 months of age. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: The population proportion formula was used to determine the percentage contribution of each of the 71 groups to total intakes. This was done by summing the weighted amount of a given nutrient provided by a given group for all individuals in the sample and dividing by the total weighted amount of that nutrient consumed by all individuals from all foods and supplements. Groups that provided at least 1% of the nutrient in question were rank-ordered. Separate tabulations were prepared for three age groups (4-5 months, 6-11 months, and 12-24 months). RESULTS: Infant formula, breast milk, and milk are major contributors of energy and most nutrients in the diets of infants and toddlers. Among toddlers, juices and fruit-flavored drinks are the second and third most important sources of energy. Fortified foods make substantial contributions to intakes of many essential nutrients, and these contributions increase as children age. For example, among toddlers, fortified grain-based foods make substantial contributions to intakes of vitamin A, iron, and folate, relative to foods that are naturally rich in these nutrients. Supplements also make substantial contributions to intakes of vitamins and selected minerals, particularly among toddlers. CONCLUSIONS: In assessing dietary intakes of infants and toddlers, dietetics professionals need to carefully consider contributions of fortified foods and supplements. Dietetics professionals should educate caregivers of infants and toddlers about the importance of foods (rather than just nutrients) in promoting health and about the importance of early feeding practices in the development of lifelong eating habits. Caregivers should be encouraged to avoid relying on fortified foods and supplements to meet nutrient needs and educated about the potential risk of excessive intakes. Caregivers of toddlers and infants over 4 to 6 months of age who are consuming solid foods should be encouraged to feed a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, as well as foods naturally rich in iron. SN - 0002-8223 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16376628/Sources_of_energy_and_nutrients_in_the_diets_of_infants_and_toddlers_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002-8223(05)01719-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -