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Low essential fatty acid and B-vitamin status in a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia and its response to dietary supplementation.

Abstract

We assessed essential fatty acid (EFA) and B-vitamin status, together with their determinants, in 61 patients with schizophrenia and established whether those with poor status responded biochemically to the appropriate dietary supplements. As a group, the patients had high erythrocyte saturated fatty acids (FAs), monounsaturated FA and low polyunsaturated FA of the omega3 and omega6 series. Patients reporting not to take vitamin supplements had low vitamin B12 and high homocysteine. Homocysteine variance proved best explained by folate in both the total group and male patients, and by vitamins B12 and B6 in females. Alcohol consumption and duration of illness are risk factors for low polyunsaturated FA status (< P2.5 of reference range), while male gender and absence of fish consumption predict hyperhomocysteinemia (> P97.5 of reference range). Two patients exhibited biochemical EFA deficiency and seven showed biochemical signs of omega3/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) marginality. Four patients exhibited moderate hyperhomocysteinemia with plasma values ranging from 57.5 to 74.8 micromol/L. None of the five patients with either moderate hyperhomocysteinemia, biochemical EFA deficiency, or both, was predicted by their clinicians to have poor diets. That diet was nevertheless at the basis of these abnormalities became confirmed after supplementing 4 of them with B vitamins and with soybean and fish oils. We conclude that a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia has biochemical EFA deficiency, omega3/DHA marginality, moderate hyperhomocysteinemia, or combinations. Correction seems indicated in view of the possible relation of poor EFA and B-vitamin status with some of their psychiatric symptoms, but notably to reduce their high risk of cardiovascular disease.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, CMC-V, Room Y3.181, University Medical Center Groningen, P.O. Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. r.f.j.kemperman@rug.nl

    , , , , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adult
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Dietary Supplements
    Erythrocytes
    Fatty Acids
    Fatty Acids, Essential
    Female
    Fish Oils
    Homocysteine
    Humans
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Nutritional Status
    Schizophrenia
    Sex Factors
    Soybean Oil
    Vitamin B 12
    Vitamin B 6
    Vitamin B Complex
    Vitamin B Deficiency

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    16384692

    Citation

    Kemperman, R F J., et al. "Low Essential Fatty Acid and B-vitamin Status in a Subgroup of Patients With Schizophrenia and Its Response to Dietary Supplementation." Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids, vol. 74, no. 2, 2006, pp. 75-85.
    Kemperman RF, Veurink M, van der Wal T, et al. Low essential fatty acid and B-vitamin status in a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia and its response to dietary supplementation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2006;74(2):75-85.
    Kemperman, R. F., Veurink, M., van der Wal, T., Knegtering, H., Bruggeman, R., Fokkema, M. R., ... Muskiet, F. A. (2006). Low essential fatty acid and B-vitamin status in a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia and its response to dietary supplementation. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids, 74(2), pp. 75-85.
    Kemperman RF, et al. Low Essential Fatty Acid and B-vitamin Status in a Subgroup of Patients With Schizophrenia and Its Response to Dietary Supplementation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2006;74(2):75-85. PubMed PMID: 16384692.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Low essential fatty acid and B-vitamin status in a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia and its response to dietary supplementation. AU - Kemperman,R F J, AU - Veurink,M, AU - van der Wal,T, AU - Knegtering,H, AU - Bruggeman,R, AU - Fokkema,M R, AU - Kema,I P, AU - Korf,J, AU - Muskiet,F A J, Y1 - 2005/12/27/ PY - 2005/07/08/received PY - 2005/11/01/revised PY - 2005/11/11/accepted PY - 2005/12/31/pubmed PY - 2006/4/7/medline PY - 2005/12/31/entrez SP - 75 EP - 85 JF - Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids JO - Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids VL - 74 IS - 2 N2 - We assessed essential fatty acid (EFA) and B-vitamin status, together with their determinants, in 61 patients with schizophrenia and established whether those with poor status responded biochemically to the appropriate dietary supplements. As a group, the patients had high erythrocyte saturated fatty acids (FAs), monounsaturated FA and low polyunsaturated FA of the omega3 and omega6 series. Patients reporting not to take vitamin supplements had low vitamin B12 and high homocysteine. Homocysteine variance proved best explained by folate in both the total group and male patients, and by vitamins B12 and B6 in females. Alcohol consumption and duration of illness are risk factors for low polyunsaturated FA status (< P2.5 of reference range), while male gender and absence of fish consumption predict hyperhomocysteinemia (> P97.5 of reference range). Two patients exhibited biochemical EFA deficiency and seven showed biochemical signs of omega3/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) marginality. Four patients exhibited moderate hyperhomocysteinemia with plasma values ranging from 57.5 to 74.8 micromol/L. None of the five patients with either moderate hyperhomocysteinemia, biochemical EFA deficiency, or both, was predicted by their clinicians to have poor diets. That diet was nevertheless at the basis of these abnormalities became confirmed after supplementing 4 of them with B vitamins and with soybean and fish oils. We conclude that a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia has biochemical EFA deficiency, omega3/DHA marginality, moderate hyperhomocysteinemia, or combinations. Correction seems indicated in view of the possible relation of poor EFA and B-vitamin status with some of their psychiatric symptoms, but notably to reduce their high risk of cardiovascular disease. SN - 0952-3278 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16384692/Low_essential_fatty_acid_and_B_vitamin_status_in_a_subgroup_of_patients_with_schizophrenia_and_its_response_to_dietary_supplementation_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0952-3278(05)00182-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -