Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Meal and snack patterns are associated with dietary intake of energy and nutrients in US adults.
J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Jan; 106(1):46-53.JA

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that specific meal and snack patterns are associated with selected nutrient intakes in US adults.

DESIGN

Using the 24-hour dietary recall from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, meal and snack patterns were described in relation to nutrient intakes.

SUBJECTS

The study included US adults aged 20 years or older (n=15,978).

STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED

All statistical analyses accounted for the survey design and sample weights. Linear regression analyses controlled for confounding factors, including energy intakes. Wald F tests were used for determination of significance between means of nutrient intakes by daily eating frequency or meal pattern groups.

RESULTS

Daily eating frequency was positively related to carbohydrate, folic acid, vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium, and fiber intakes and inversely related to protein, total fat, cholesterol, and sodium intakes. Meal patterns were further categorized into the five most commonly reported meal and snack combinations by population percentages including breakfast (B), lunch (L), dinner (D), and > or =2 snacks (S) (31.6%); B, L, D and 1 S (15.4%); B, D and > or =2 S (13.1%); B, L, D (8.3%); and L, D and > or =2 S (7.6%). Groups reporting B, L, D and 1 S and B, L, D and > or =2 S had the highest intakes of all micronutrients examined except cholesterol, vitamin B-6, and sodium. Breakfast skippers (L, D and > or =2 S) had the lowest intakes of all micronutrients examined except sodium.

CONCLUSIONS

Findings from this cross-sectional survey suggest that meal and snack patterns may be markers for nutrient intakes and therefore diet quality. Complete nutrient intakes should be considered in investigations of meal patterns and health outcomes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Food and Nutrition Database Research Center, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, 131 G. M. Trout FSHN Building, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16390666

Citation

Kerver, Jean M., et al. "Meal and Snack Patterns Are Associated With Dietary Intake of Energy and Nutrients in US Adults." Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 106, no. 1, 2006, pp. 46-53.
Kerver JM, Yang EJ, Obayashi S, et al. Meal and snack patterns are associated with dietary intake of energy and nutrients in US adults. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106(1):46-53.
Kerver, J. M., Yang, E. J., Obayashi, S., Bianchi, L., & Song, W. O. (2006). Meal and snack patterns are associated with dietary intake of energy and nutrients in US adults. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 106(1), 46-53.
Kerver JM, et al. Meal and Snack Patterns Are Associated With Dietary Intake of Energy and Nutrients in US Adults. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106(1):46-53. PubMed PMID: 16390666.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Meal and snack patterns are associated with dietary intake of energy and nutrients in US adults. AU - Kerver,Jean M, AU - Yang,Eun Ju, AU - Obayashi,Saori, AU - Bianchi,Leonard, AU - Song,Won O, PY - 2004/06/08/received PY - 2006/1/5/pubmed PY - 2006/3/24/medline PY - 2006/1/5/entrez SP - 46 EP - 53 JF - Journal of the American Dietetic Association JO - J Am Diet Assoc VL - 106 IS - 1 N2 - OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that specific meal and snack patterns are associated with selected nutrient intakes in US adults. DESIGN: Using the 24-hour dietary recall from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, meal and snack patterns were described in relation to nutrient intakes. SUBJECTS: The study included US adults aged 20 years or older (n=15,978). STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: All statistical analyses accounted for the survey design and sample weights. Linear regression analyses controlled for confounding factors, including energy intakes. Wald F tests were used for determination of significance between means of nutrient intakes by daily eating frequency or meal pattern groups. RESULTS: Daily eating frequency was positively related to carbohydrate, folic acid, vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium, and fiber intakes and inversely related to protein, total fat, cholesterol, and sodium intakes. Meal patterns were further categorized into the five most commonly reported meal and snack combinations by population percentages including breakfast (B), lunch (L), dinner (D), and > or =2 snacks (S) (31.6%); B, L, D and 1 S (15.4%); B, D and > or =2 S (13.1%); B, L, D (8.3%); and L, D and > or =2 S (7.6%). Groups reporting B, L, D and 1 S and B, L, D and > or =2 S had the highest intakes of all micronutrients examined except cholesterol, vitamin B-6, and sodium. Breakfast skippers (L, D and > or =2 S) had the lowest intakes of all micronutrients examined except sodium. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this cross-sectional survey suggest that meal and snack patterns may be markers for nutrient intakes and therefore diet quality. Complete nutrient intakes should be considered in investigations of meal patterns and health outcomes. SN - 0002-8223 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16390666/Meal_and_snack_patterns_are_associated_with_dietary_intake_of_energy_and_nutrients_in_US_adults_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002-8223(05)01730-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -