Attenuation of indomethacin- and HCl/ethanol-induced oxidative gastric mucosa damage in rats by kolaviron, a natural biflavonoid of Garcinia kola seed.Phytother Res. 2006 Jan; 20(1):14-20.PR
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the aetiology of HCl/ethanol- and indomethacin gastric mucosal damage. This study investigated the protective effects of kolaviron, a natural antioxidant from the seed of Garcinia kola, on oxidative gastric mucosal damage induced by HCl/ethanol, and indomethacin.A HCl/ethanol mixture (1.5 mL of 0.15 n HCl in 70% ethanol) and indomethacin (IND) caused severe gastric damage with an ulcer index of 2.90 +/- 0.8 and 2.5 +/- 0.4, respectively, and significant reductions in the gastric mucosal content of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) (p < 0.001).Pre-treatment of animals with kolaviron (100 mg/kg) orally 1 h and once daily for 3 days prior to ulcer induction significantly reduced the formation of ulcers induced by HCl/ethanol with preventive ratios of 65 and 72, respectively, while rats treated with kolaviron 1 day and for 7 days prior to IND treatment attenuated ulcer formation by 59% and 77%. Pre-treatment with ranitidine 1 h prior to ulcer induction (50 mg/kg) elicited preventive ulcer ratio of 55. Kolaviron pre-treatment 1 h before ulcer induction attenuated the HCl/ethanol reduction in CAT, SOD and GSH by 43%, 42% and 30%, respectively, and 67%, 68% and 64% following 72 h treatment with kolaviron. Ranitidine elicited 24%, 41% and 29% protective effects, respectively.Similarly, kolaviron administered to rats 1 day and for 7 days before IND treatment attenuated the drug-induced inhibition of CAT by 44% and 70%; SOD by 23% and 43% and GSH by 32% and 55%, respectively. In a 1 h and 3-day treatment with kolaviron before HCl/ethanol administration, MDA was reduced by 35% and 55%, respectively, while kolaviron administration 1 day and for 7 days before IND elicited a 39% and 58% reduction in MDA. Ranitidine elicited 39% and 50% reduction in MDA following HCl/ethanol and IND treatment. The results indicate the gastroprotective activity of kolaviron, which may be linked to its intrinsic antioxidant properties.