Antenatal transabdominal ultrasound detection of cleft lip and palate in Western Australia from 1996 to 2003.Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2006 Jan; 43(1):61-6.CP
To determine the frequency of detection of cleft lip with or without cleft palate and isolated cleft palate from antenatal ultrasound examinations conducted on mothers of infants born with cleft lip and/or palate and isolated cleft palate in Western Australia from 1996 to 2003.
Review of patient records and purpose-designed questionnaire sent to parents of children born with cleft lip and/or palate and isolated cleft palate.
There were 308 infants born with cleft lip and/or palate and isolated cleft palate in the study period. Of the 293 parents, 218 responses were available for the study (70.7%), and 2.9 +/- 1.8 SD antenatal ultrasound scans were performed on 216 women. No such scans were performed on two women. Cleft lip and/or palate was detected in 22.2% of cases. There was no detection prior to 15 weeks gestational age in the 137 women screened. Between 15 and 19 weeks gestational age, 174 scans detected 30 cases. Between 20 and 29 weeks gestational age, 84 scans detected 11 cases. Between 30 and 40 weeks gestational age, 66 scans detected 7 cases. The detection rate for bilateral cleft lip and/or palate was 44.4% and for unilateral cleft lip and/or palate, 40.6%. Detection rate for isolated cleft lip was 33.3%. Antenatal ultrasound failed to detect any infants with an isolated cleft palate (n = 95). The rate of detection of cleft lip and/or palate increased through the study period.
The rate of detection of cleft lip and/or palate in Western Australia is comparable to that for referral centers worldwide and is increasing. The rate of detection of the various types of cleft anomalies using antenatal ultrasound ranged from 0% to 44%.