Effect of long and short photoperiod on vasotocin neurons of paraventricular nuclei and adrenal function of water deprived Japanese quail.Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2006 Feb; 143(2):202-10.CB
The responses of magnocellular neurons of paraventricular nuclei (PVN) and changes to adrenal activity to water deprivation in Japanese quail maintained under gonado-inhibitory and stimulatory photoperiods were examined. Water deprivation of 4 days resulted in a 12% decrease in body weight of sexually regressed short day (SD, 6L:18D) quail, while the decrease was more (18%) in sexually stimulated long day (LD, 16L:8D) quail. The increase in plasma osmolality following water deprivation was also more (47%) in LD than to SD quail (36%). Under the LD condition, quail had increased numbers, sizes and immunostaining of ir-AVT neurons of PVN compared to SD condition. A significant increase in the number of ir-AVT neurons was observed following 4 days of water deprivation in both SD and LD quail compared to their respective fully hydrated controls. However, the degree of response was more under the LD compared to the SD condition suggesting that gonado-stimulatory long days increase the activity/response of the AVT system. Increased adrenal ascorbic acid content (i.e., activity) was also observed to quail of LD when compared to SD treatment. However, osmotic stress led to adrenal hypertrophy and hyperactivity of quail of both of the photoperiodic regimes. Our findings indicate that not only osmotic stress but also photo-gonadal stimulation upregulates the expression of hypothalamic AVT genes and increases the localization of ir-AVT in many neurons of PVN. The above results support the existence of a parallel adrenal-gonad relationship and increase in adrenal function during osmotic stress, which also leads to simultaneous increase in AVT system. We conclude that photo-sexual conditions alter hypothalamic vasotocinergic and adrenal activity in Japanese quail and the degree of stimulation of the two systems following osmotic stress is higher under gonado-stimulatory LD conditions.