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Is there a "school effect" on pupil outcomes? A review of multilevel studies.
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2006 Feb; 60(2):149-55.JE

Abstract

STUDY OBJECTIVE

The school environment is of importance for child outcomes. Multilevel analyses can separate determinants operating at an individual level from those operating at a contextual level. This paper aims to systematically review multilevel studies of school contextual effects on pupil outcomes.

DESIGN

Key word searching of five databases yielded 17 cross sectional or longitudinal studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Results are summarised with reference to type of school contextual determinant.

MAIN RESULTS

Four main school effects on pupil outcomes were identified. Having a health policy or antismoking policy, a good school climate, high average socioeconomic status, and urban location had a positive effect on pupil outcomes. Outcomes under study were smoking habits, wellbeing, problem behaviour, and school achievement.

CONCLUSIONS

Despite the different pupil outcomes and the variety of determinants used in the included papers, a school effect was evident. However, to improve our understanding of school effects, presentations of results from multilevel studies need to be standardised. Intraclass correlation and explained between school variance give relevant information on factors in the school environment influencing pupil outcomes, and should be included in all multilevel studies. Inclusion of pupil level predictors in the multilevel models should be based on theoretical considerations of how schools and communities are interconnected and how pupils and their families are influenced by school contextual factors.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Health Sciences, MidSweden University, SE-831 25 Ostersund, Sweden. eva.sellstrom@miun.seNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16415266

Citation

Sellström, E, and S Bremberg. "Is There a "school Effect" On Pupil Outcomes? a Review of Multilevel Studies." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 60, no. 2, 2006, pp. 149-55.
Sellström E, Bremberg S. Is there a "school effect" on pupil outcomes? A review of multilevel studies. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2006;60(2):149-55.
Sellström, E., & Bremberg, S. (2006). Is there a "school effect" on pupil outcomes? A review of multilevel studies. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 60(2), 149-55.
Sellström E, Bremberg S. Is There a "school Effect" On Pupil Outcomes? a Review of Multilevel Studies. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2006;60(2):149-55. PubMed PMID: 16415266.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Is there a "school effect" on pupil outcomes? A review of multilevel studies. AU - Sellström,E, AU - Bremberg,S, PY - 2006/1/18/pubmed PY - 2006/5/31/medline PY - 2006/1/18/entrez SP - 149 EP - 55 JF - Journal of epidemiology and community health JO - J Epidemiol Community Health VL - 60 IS - 2 N2 - STUDY OBJECTIVE: The school environment is of importance for child outcomes. Multilevel analyses can separate determinants operating at an individual level from those operating at a contextual level. This paper aims to systematically review multilevel studies of school contextual effects on pupil outcomes. DESIGN: Key word searching of five databases yielded 17 cross sectional or longitudinal studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Results are summarised with reference to type of school contextual determinant. MAIN RESULTS: Four main school effects on pupil outcomes were identified. Having a health policy or antismoking policy, a good school climate, high average socioeconomic status, and urban location had a positive effect on pupil outcomes. Outcomes under study were smoking habits, wellbeing, problem behaviour, and school achievement. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the different pupil outcomes and the variety of determinants used in the included papers, a school effect was evident. However, to improve our understanding of school effects, presentations of results from multilevel studies need to be standardised. Intraclass correlation and explained between school variance give relevant information on factors in the school environment influencing pupil outcomes, and should be included in all multilevel studies. Inclusion of pupil level predictors in the multilevel models should be based on theoretical considerations of how schools and communities are interconnected and how pupils and their families are influenced by school contextual factors. SN - 0143-005X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16415266/Is_there_a_"school_effect"_on_pupil_outcomes_A_review_of_multilevel_studies_ L2 - https://jech.bmj.com/lookup/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16415266 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -