Waist circumference predicts cardiometabolic and global Framingham risk among women screened during National Woman's Heart Day.J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2006 Jan-Feb; 15(1):24-34.JW
To evaluate the cardiometabolic risk profiles of 6938 women (mean age 49.2 +/- 14.6 years) attending the 2005 Sister to Sister: Everyone Has a Heart Foundation free public health standardized cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor screening events in 12 cities across the United States by race/ethnicity and waist circumference.
Among women without a history of CVD or diabetes (n = 6327), 90% were found to have at least one major modifiable CVD risk factor, with one-third of women having three or more major risk factors. Nearly half of all women with elevated total cholesterol (> or = 200 mg/dL) or low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (< 50 mg/dL) did not report a known history of abnormal cholesterol. Among women with no history of hypertension, 16% had a blood pressure > or = 140/90 mm Hg. Unrecognized diabetes and glucose intolerance were striking among fasting women (n = 1218; 9% had a blood glucose > or = 126 mg/dL and 43% had a blood glucose > or = 100 mg/dL). In adjusted logistic regression models, women with a waist circumference > or = 35 inches were more likely to have blood pressure > or = 140/90 (OR = 1.9, p < 0.0001), total cholesterol > or = 200 mg/dL (OR = 1.2, p = 0.006), HDL-cholesterol < 50 mg/dL (OR = 2.5, p < 0.0001), fasting glucose > or = 100 mg/dL (OR = 2.0, p < 0.0001), and Framingham global risk score > or = 10%, CVD or diabetes (OR = 2.0, p < 0.0001). Waist circumference was significantly correlated with Framingham global risk (r = 0.24, p < 0.001) and number of risk factors (r = 0.24, p < 0.0001). Increased clustering of risk factors was predictive of waist size > or = 35 inches vs. < 35 inches in logistic models (p for trend > 0.0001). Among a subsample of women who underwent standardized screening for stress and depression, 62% had stress levels associated with increased cardiac risk, and 27% met criteria for clinical depression.
Hypertension, dyslipidemia, and/or impaired fasting glucose were newly identified in approximately half the women screened. Waist size significantly correlated with clustering of risk factors, global Framingham risk score, CVD and diabetes, suggesting it may be an easily measured surrogate for women at increased risk of future cardiovascular clinical events who may benefit from further assessment and intervention.