Bonding effectiveness of adhesive luting agents to enamel and dentin.Dent Mater. 2007 Jan; 23(1):71-80.DM
The bonding effectiveness of five adhesive luting agents to enamel and dentin using different application procedures was determined using a micro-tensile bond strength protocol (microTBS).
Enamel/dentin surfaces of human third molars were flattened using a high-speed diamond bur. Composite resin blocks (Paradigm, 3M ESPE) were luted using either Linkmax (LM; GC), Nexus 2 (NX; Kerr), Panavia F (PN; Kuraray), RelyX Unicem (UN; 3M ESPE) or Variolink II (VL; Ivoclar-Vivadent), strictly following manufacturers' instructions. For some luting agents, modified application procedures were also tested, resulting in four other experimental groups: Prompt L-Pop+RelyX Unicem (PLP+UN; 3M ESPE), Scotchbond Etchant+RelyX Unicem (SE+UN; 3M ESPE), Optibond Solo Plus Activator+Nexus 2 (ACT+NX; Kerr) and K-Etchant gel+Panavia-F (KE+P; Kuraray). The experimental groups were classified according to the adhesive approach in self-adhesive (UN), etch-and-rinse (ACT+NX, NX, KE+P, SE+UN and VL when bonded to enamel) and self-etch adhesive luting agents (LM, PLP+UN, PN and VL when bonded to dentin). The specimens were stored for 24h in distilled water at 37 degrees C prior to microTBS testing. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine pairwise statistical differences (p<0.05) in microTBS between the experimental groups.
When bonded to enamel, ACT+NX (15 MPa) and UN (19.6 MPa) scored significantly lower than VL (49.3 MPa), LM (49.2 MPa), PN (35.4 MPa) and SE+UN (35.2 MPa), while PLP+UN (23.5 MPa) showed a significantly lower microTBS than VL (49.3 MPa) and LM (49.2 MPa). No significant differences were noticed between VL (49.3 MPa), LM (49.2 MPa), NX (37.9 MPa), KE+PN (38.8 MPa), PN (35.4 MPa) and SE+UN (35.2 MPa). Regarding the bonding effectiveness to dentin, all luting agents bonded equally effectively (UN: 15.9 MPa; LM: 15.4 MPa; PN: 17.5 MPa; NX: 22.3 MPa), except VL (1.1 MPa), SE+UN (5.9 MPa) and ACT+NX (13.2 MPa). VL revealed an exceptionally high number of pre-testing failures, most likely due to a combined effect of not having cured the adhesive separately and an insufficiently light-cured luting agent.
Following a correct application procedure, the etch-and-rinse, self-etch and self-adhesive luting agents are equally effective in bonding to enamel and dentin. Several factors negatively influenced bond strength such as bonding RelyX Unicem to enamel without prior phosphoric acid etching; no separate light-curing of a light-polymerizable adhesive prior to cementation, use of a light-polymerizing adhesive converted into a dual-polymerizing adhesive, and use of a dual-cure luting agent with a low auto-polymerizable potential.