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Simultaneous analyses of cocaine, cocaethylene, and their possible metabolic and pyrolytic products.
Forensic Sci Int. 2006 Feb 10; 157(1):46-56.FS

Abstract

A method was developed for simultaneously analyzing cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BZE), norbenzoylecgonine (BNE), norcocaine (NCOC), ecgonine (ECG), ecgonine methyl ester (EME), m-hydroxybenzoylecgonine (HBZE), anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME), cocaethylene (CE), norcocaethylene (NCE), and ecgonine ethyl ester (EEE) in blood, urine, and muscle. Available deuterated analogs of these analytes were used as internal standards. Proteins from blood and muscle homogenate were precipitated with cold acetonitrile. After the removal of acetonitrile by evaporation, the supernatants and urine were subjected to solid-phase extraction. The eluted analytes were converted to their hydrochloride salts and derivatized with pentafluoropropionic anhydride and 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoro-1-propanol. The derivatized products were analyzed by a gas chromatograph (GC)/mass spectrometer by selected ion monitoring. The limit of detection (LOD) for COC, BZE, NCOC, EME, CE, NCE, and EEE was 2ng/ml, while the LODs for BNE, ECG, HBZE, and AEME were 25, 640, 50, and 13 ng/ml, respectively. This method was successfully applied in analyzing 13 case samples from aviation accident pilot fatalities and motor vehicle operators. AEME concentrations found in the 13 samples were consistent with those produced solely by the GC inlet pyrolysis of COC controls in blood. Anhydroecgonine cannot be used as a marker for the abuse of COC by smoking because it is also pyrolytically produced from COC metabolites on the GC inlet. The developed method can be effectively adopted for analyzing COC and related compounds in urine, blood, and muscle by a single extraction with increased sensitivity through formation of hydrochloride salts and using a one-step derivatization.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Bioaeronautical Sciences Research Laboratory (AAM-610), Civil Aerospace Medical Institute, Federal Aviation Administration, US Department of Transportation, Oklahoma City, 73125-5066, USA. Patrick.Cardona@FAA.GOVNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16428007

Citation

Cardona, Patrick S., et al. "Simultaneous Analyses of Cocaine, Cocaethylene, and Their Possible Metabolic and Pyrolytic Products." Forensic Science International, vol. 157, no. 1, 2006, pp. 46-56.
Cardona PS, Chaturvedi AK, Soper JW, et al. Simultaneous analyses of cocaine, cocaethylene, and their possible metabolic and pyrolytic products. Forensic Sci Int. 2006;157(1):46-56.
Cardona, P. S., Chaturvedi, A. K., Soper, J. W., & Canfield, D. V. (2006). Simultaneous analyses of cocaine, cocaethylene, and their possible metabolic and pyrolytic products. Forensic Science International, 157(1), 46-56.
Cardona PS, et al. Simultaneous Analyses of Cocaine, Cocaethylene, and Their Possible Metabolic and Pyrolytic Products. Forensic Sci Int. 2006 Feb 10;157(1):46-56. PubMed PMID: 16428007.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Simultaneous analyses of cocaine, cocaethylene, and their possible metabolic and pyrolytic products. AU - Cardona,Patrick S, AU - Chaturvedi,Arvind K, AU - Soper,John W, AU - Canfield,Dennis V, PY - 2004/08/06/received PY - 2005/02/17/revised PY - 2005/02/17/accepted PY - 2006/1/24/pubmed PY - 2006/3/24/medline PY - 2006/1/24/entrez SP - 46 EP - 56 JF - Forensic science international JO - Forensic Sci Int VL - 157 IS - 1 N2 - A method was developed for simultaneously analyzing cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BZE), norbenzoylecgonine (BNE), norcocaine (NCOC), ecgonine (ECG), ecgonine methyl ester (EME), m-hydroxybenzoylecgonine (HBZE), anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME), cocaethylene (CE), norcocaethylene (NCE), and ecgonine ethyl ester (EEE) in blood, urine, and muscle. Available deuterated analogs of these analytes were used as internal standards. Proteins from blood and muscle homogenate were precipitated with cold acetonitrile. After the removal of acetonitrile by evaporation, the supernatants and urine were subjected to solid-phase extraction. The eluted analytes were converted to their hydrochloride salts and derivatized with pentafluoropropionic anhydride and 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoro-1-propanol. The derivatized products were analyzed by a gas chromatograph (GC)/mass spectrometer by selected ion monitoring. The limit of detection (LOD) for COC, BZE, NCOC, EME, CE, NCE, and EEE was 2ng/ml, while the LODs for BNE, ECG, HBZE, and AEME were 25, 640, 50, and 13 ng/ml, respectively. This method was successfully applied in analyzing 13 case samples from aviation accident pilot fatalities and motor vehicle operators. AEME concentrations found in the 13 samples were consistent with those produced solely by the GC inlet pyrolysis of COC controls in blood. Anhydroecgonine cannot be used as a marker for the abuse of COC by smoking because it is also pyrolytically produced from COC metabolites on the GC inlet. The developed method can be effectively adopted for analyzing COC and related compounds in urine, blood, and muscle by a single extraction with increased sensitivity through formation of hydrochloride salts and using a one-step derivatization. SN - 0379-0738 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16428007/Simultaneous_analyses_of_cocaine_cocaethylene_and_their_possible_metabolic_and_pyrolytic_products_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0379-0738(05)00170-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -