In vitro metabolic activation of thiabendazole via 5-hydroxythiabendazole: identification of a glutathione conjugate of 5-hydroxythiabendazole.Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Apr; 34(4):709-17.DM
Thiabendazole (TBZ) is a broad-spectrum antihelmintic used for treatment of parasitic infections in animals and humans and as an agricultural fungicide for postharvest treatment of fruits and vegetables. It is teratogenic and nephrotoxic in mice, and cases of hepatotoxicity have been observed in humans. Recent reports have demonstrated a correlation between 5-hydroxythiabendazole (5-OHTBZ) formation, a major metabolite of TBZ, and covalent binding of [(14)C]TBZ to hepatocytes, suggesting another pathway of activation of TBZ. Current in vitro studies were undertaken to probe the bioactivation of TBZ via 5-OHTBZ by cytochrome P450 (P450) and peroxidases and identify the reactive species by trapping with reduced glutathione (GSH). Microsomal incubation of TBZ or 5-OHTBZ supplemented with NADPH and GSH afforded a GSH adduct of 5-OHTBZ and was consistent with a bioactivation pathway that involved a P450-catalyzed two-electron oxidation of 5-OHTBZ to a quinone imine. The same adduct was detected in GSH-fortified incubations of 5-OHTBZ with peroxidases. The identity of the GSH conjugate suggested that the same reactive intermediate was formed by both these enzyme systems. Characterization of the conjugate by mass spectrometry and NMR revealed the addition of GSH at the 4-position of 5-OHTBZ. In addition, the formation of a dimer of 5-OHTBZ was discernible in peroxidase-mediated incubations. These results were consistent with a one-electron oxidation of 5-OHTBZ to a radical species that could undergo disproportionation or an additional one-electron oxidation to form a quinone imine. Overall, these studies suggest that 5-OHTBZ can also play a role in TBZ-induced toxicity via its bioactivation by P450 and peroxidases.