The formation of acrylamide in UK cereal products.Adv Exp Med Biol. 2005; 561:415-29.AE
Many bakery products sold in the UK such as crumpets, batch bread and Naan might be expected to show high levels of acrylamide because they have strong Maillard colours and flavours. However, analysis of commercial products has shown that the highest levels of acrylamide are seen in dry biscuit type products. With the exception of spiced products such as ginger cake, moist high sugar products (e.g. cakes and fruit loaves) show relatively low levels of acrylamide, even in darkly browned crusts. This is in contrast to bread where acrylamide levels in excess of 100 microg/kg are common in the crust region, but are diluted by low levels in the crumb. Acrylamide levels in bread are significantly raised by domestic toasting, but other products such as crumpets and Naan bread have been found to be less sensitive. A mathematical model has been developed (and validated against tests on model dough) which shows that once obvious recipe differences are allowed for, the key factor limiting acrylamide levels is crust moisture. Chemical decay of acrylamide and depletion of amino acids are also limiting factors at higher temperatures.