Melatonin reduces urinary excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, albumin and renal oxidative markers in diabetic rats.Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2006 Jan-Feb; 33(1-2):95-101CE
1. Increased oxidative stress has an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate diabetic nephropathy by determining markers of oxidative stress and the urinary excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), albumin and to investigate the possible protective effects of in vivo melatonin on renal tubular oxidative damage in diabetic rats. 2. Twenty-six rats were randomly divided into three groups: (i) group I, control, non-diabetic rats (n = 9); (ii) group II, untreated diabetic rats (n = 8); and (iii) group III, melatonin-treated diabetic rats (n = 9). In groups II and III, diabetes developed 3 days after administration of a single dose of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg, i.p.). Thereafter, whereas the rats in group II received no treatment, rats in group III began to receive 10 mg/kg per day, i.p., melatonin for 8 weeks. Malondialdehyde (MDA), an index of lipid peroxidation, NAG and microalbumin in the urine, markers of renal tubular damage, were the parameters used for oxidative stress-induced renal injury. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), xanthine oxidase (XO) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined to evaluate changes in the anti-oxidant status of kidney tissue. 3. In untreated diabetic rats, urinary NAG, albumin and renal MDA levels were markedly increased compared with control rats (P < 0.0001). However, these parameters were reduced in diabetic rats by melatonin treatment (P < 0.0001). Urinary excretion of NAG was positively correlated with the microalbuminuria and renal MDA levels (r = 0.8; P < 0.0001). The SOD and XO activities in the untreated diabetic group were found to be significantly higher than those of the control group (P < 0.0001). Superoxide dismutase and XO activities decreased in melatonin-treated rats compared with untreated diabetic rats (P < 0.002 and P < 0.023, respectively). However, the decrease did reach levels seen in control rats. There were no significant differences in GSH-Px activity between the three groups. 4. Therefore, on the basis of these data, we suggest that urinary NAG, albumin excretion, XO activity and MDA levels are more valuable parameters showing the degree of renal tubular injury than classical markers of oxidative stress, including SOD and GSH-Px, in diabetic rat kidneys. Melatonin has an ameliorating effect on oxidative stress-induced renal tubular damage via its anti-oxidant properties. Thus, it may be suggested that urinary NAG excretion and microalbuminuria may be important markers showing the degree of renal changes and the success of long-term treatment of renal impairment with melatonin.