Insulin-like growth factor I and II expression and modulation in amoeboid microglial cells by lipopolysaccharide and retinoic acid.
Insulin-like growth factors I and II are known to regulate the development of the CNS. We examined the developmental changes in insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor II expression in the postnatal rat corpus callosum. Insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor II mRNA expression increased at 3 days as compared with 1 day whereas the protein expression increased up to 7 days. Insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor II immunoexpression was specifically localized in round cells confirmed by double immunofluorescence with OX-42 to be the amoeboid microglial cells. Insulin-like growth factor I expression was observed up to 7 days in amoeboid microglial cells while insulin-like growth factor II expression was detected in 1-3 day old rats. Exposure of primary rat microglial cell cultures to lipopolysaccharide increased insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor II mRNA and protein expression significantly along with their immunoexpression in microglial cells. The lipopolysaccharide-induced increase in insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor II mRNA and protein expression was significantly decreased with all-trans-retinoic acid. We conclude that insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor II expression in amoeboid microglial cells in the developing brain is related to their activation. Once the activation is inhibited, either by transformation of the amoeboid microglial cells into ramified microglia regarded as resting cells or as shown by the effect of all-trans-retinoic acid administration, insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor II mRNA and protein expression is downregulated.
Department of Anatomy, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, Blk MD10, 4 Medical Drive, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597. email@example.com, ,
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
Pub Type(s)Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't