Endoscopic outcome beyond esophageal variceal eradication in children with extrahepatic portal venous obstruction.J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2006 Feb; 42(2):196-200.JP
To find out the recurrence of esophageal varices, evolution of gastric varices, portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) and risk of rebleeding following esophageal variceal eradication.
Between 1992 and 2002, children with extrahepatic portal venous obstruction (EHPVO) and bleeding from esophageal varices received endoscopic injection sclerotherapy until eradication. Surveillance endoscopy was performed initially at 3 months and subsequently at intervals of 6 months to one year to detect esophageal and gastric varices, and PHG. Gastric varices were classified as gastroesophageal (GOV) or isolated gastric varices (IGV). Gastroesophageal varices included types GOV1 and GOV2 that extend along lesser and greater curvatures respectively. Patients who had recurrence of bleeding were evaluated by emergency upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.
163 of 183 children who achieved esophageal variceal eradication were evaluated. Esophageal varices recurred in 40% cases. Primary gastric varices (before sclerotherapy) were seen in 61% cases [GOV 98% (83% GOV1, 15% GOV2) and IGV 2%] and secondary (after sclerotherapy) in 28% [GOV 71% (47% GOV1, 24% GOV2) and IGV 29%]. Secondary gastric varices were distributed as 20% GOV1, 42% GOV2 and 87% IGV. Frequency of gastric varices before sclerotherapy and at the last follow up showed decrease in GOV1 from 82 to 56 (P = 0.02), increase in GOV2 from 15 to 23 and increase in IGV from 2 to 15 (P < 0.001). PHG increased in frequency from 12% to 41% (P < 0.001) and severity from one patient to 12 (P < 0.001). Eleven cases had rebleeding from gastric varices (5 GOV1, 4 GOV2 and 2 IGV).
Following esophageal variceal eradication in children with EHPVO a significant decrease in GOV1, increase in IGV and increased frequency and severity of PHG takes place. Small rebleeding risk persists from gastric varices irrespective of the type.