GerES IV pilot study: assessment of the exposure of German children to organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides.Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2006 May; 209(3):221-33.IJ
Organophosphorus pesticides and pyrethroids are widely used in German agriculture and residential settings. Their occurrence in human biological samples can be used as an indicator for the exposure of children to these compounds. Using multivariate evaluation the routes of exposure can be identified. In the pilot study of GerES IV, metabolites of pyrethroids and organophosporus pesticides were analysed in urine of children aged 2-17 years (n = 396 and 363). The 95th percentiles for the metabolites of the pyrethroids in urine were: cis-DCCA 0.74 microg/l, trans-DCCA 1.7 microg/l, DBCA 0.52 microg/l, F-PBA < 0.1 microg/l, and 3-PBA 2.4 microg/l. 3-PBA was detected in 90% of the samples. The 95th percentiles for the organophosphorus metabolites in urine were: DMP 118 microg/l, DEP 20 microg/l, DMTP 124 microg/l, DETP 11 microg/l, DMDTP 11 microg/l, DEDTP < 1.0microg/l. DMTP was the metabolite most frequently detected in the samples (90%). Based on the metabolites analysed in urine the exposure to organophosphorus pesticides is mainly influenced by age, consumption of fresh fruits and fruit juice, living in an urban area, and season. A rough estimation revealed that the ADI values for organophosphorus pesticides might be exceeded. However, these results require further exploration. The exposure to pyrethroids is influenced by age, sampling location, consumption of boiled vegetables, and the use of biocides indoors at home. In addition, a significant correlation between permethrin in house dust and the metabolite concentrations in urine could be observed. Thus it seems likely that ingestion of house dust contributes to children's exposure.