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Prevalence of the female athlete triad syndrome among high school athletes.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006 Feb; 160(2):137-42.AP

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To estimate the prevalence of the female athlete triad (disordered eating, menstrual irregularity, and low bone mass) among high school athletes.

DESIGN

Observational cross-sectional study.

SETTING

High school.

PARTICIPANTS

Female athletes (n= 170) representing 8 sports were recruited from 6 high schools in southern California.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Disordered eating and menstrual status were determined by interviewer-assisted questionnaires. Bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry of the hip, spine (L1-L4), and total body.

RESULTS

Among all athletes, 18.2%, 23.5%, and 21.8% met the criteria for disordered eating, menstrual irregularity, and low bone mass, respectively. Ten girls (5.9%) met criteria for 2 components of the triad, and 2 girls (1.2%) met criteria for all 3 components. Oligomenorrheic/amenorrheic athletes had higher mean +/- SD eating restraint (1.55 +/- 1.60 vs 1.04 +/- 1.27; P = .02) and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire global scores (1.68 +/- 1.20 vs 1.33 +/- 1.14; P = .03) than eumenorrheic athletes. After controlling for age, age at menarche, body mass index, race/ethnicity, and sport type, athletes with oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea had significantly lower mean +/- SD bone mineral densities for the trochanter (0.884 +/- 0.090 g . cm(-2)) than eumenorrheic athletes (0.933 +/- 0.130 g . cm(-2); P = .04).

CONCLUSIONS

The prevalence of the full female athlete triad was low in our sample; however, a substantial percentage of the athletes may be at risk for long-term health consequences associated with disordered eating, menstrual irregularity, or low bone mass. Preparticipation screening to identify these components should be encouraged as a preventive approach to identify high-risk athletes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences and Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA. jeannebernhard@cox.netNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16461868

Citation

Nichols, Jeanne F., et al. "Prevalence of the Female Athlete Triad Syndrome Among High School Athletes." Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, vol. 160, no. 2, 2006, pp. 137-42.
Nichols JF, Rauh MJ, Lawson MJ, et al. Prevalence of the female athlete triad syndrome among high school athletes. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006;160(2):137-42.
Nichols, J. F., Rauh, M. J., Lawson, M. J., Ji, M., & Barkai, H. S. (2006). Prevalence of the female athlete triad syndrome among high school athletes. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 160(2), 137-42.
Nichols JF, et al. Prevalence of the Female Athlete Triad Syndrome Among High School Athletes. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006;160(2):137-42. PubMed PMID: 16461868.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Prevalence of the female athlete triad syndrome among high school athletes. AU - Nichols,Jeanne F, AU - Rauh,Mitchell J, AU - Lawson,Mandra J, AU - Ji,Ming, AU - Barkai,Hava-Shoshana, PY - 2006/2/8/pubmed PY - 2006/3/22/medline PY - 2006/2/8/entrez SP - 137 EP - 42 JF - Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine JO - Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med VL - 160 IS - 2 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of the female athlete triad (disordered eating, menstrual irregularity, and low bone mass) among high school athletes. DESIGN: Observational cross-sectional study. SETTING: High school. PARTICIPANTS: Female athletes (n= 170) representing 8 sports were recruited from 6 high schools in southern California. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Disordered eating and menstrual status were determined by interviewer-assisted questionnaires. Bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry of the hip, spine (L1-L4), and total body. RESULTS: Among all athletes, 18.2%, 23.5%, and 21.8% met the criteria for disordered eating, menstrual irregularity, and low bone mass, respectively. Ten girls (5.9%) met criteria for 2 components of the triad, and 2 girls (1.2%) met criteria for all 3 components. Oligomenorrheic/amenorrheic athletes had higher mean +/- SD eating restraint (1.55 +/- 1.60 vs 1.04 +/- 1.27; P = .02) and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire global scores (1.68 +/- 1.20 vs 1.33 +/- 1.14; P = .03) than eumenorrheic athletes. After controlling for age, age at menarche, body mass index, race/ethnicity, and sport type, athletes with oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea had significantly lower mean +/- SD bone mineral densities for the trochanter (0.884 +/- 0.090 g . cm(-2)) than eumenorrheic athletes (0.933 +/- 0.130 g . cm(-2); P = .04). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of the full female athlete triad was low in our sample; however, a substantial percentage of the athletes may be at risk for long-term health consequences associated with disordered eating, menstrual irregularity, or low bone mass. Preparticipation screening to identify these components should be encouraged as a preventive approach to identify high-risk athletes. SN - 1072-4710 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16461868/Prevalence_of_the_female_athlete_triad_syndrome_among_high_school_athletes_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/fullarticle/10.1001/archpedi.160.2.137 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -